Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Measurement of People Equity - Essay Example It has been viewed that the business organizations intend to invest substantial amount for managing human capital for the purpose of investing their valuable resources wisely. The different business organizations generally focus upon the aforesaid constituents of people equity in order to increase their operational standards as well as business performance by a significant level. In relation to assess people equity, a survey is often regarded to be a better tool for measuring people equity. This is due to the reasons that a survey is generally cost-effective to acquire information from the respondents relating to people equity and most importantly it facilitates to distinguish between high and low performances. Moreover, the tool of survey not only estimates the elements of people equity but also its drivers along with enablers. Additionally, one of the major advantages of using a survey tool in order to measure people equity is that it swiftly captures all the three valuable constit uents of people equity which ultimately assists the organizations to successfully measure their people equity. Conversely, there also lay certain significant drawbacks while using a survey tool to measure the constituents of people equity. The drawbacks include inflexibility, difficulty for the respondents to recall valuable information against any sort of controversial questions, probable chances of vagueness and misconceptions (Schiemann, n.d.). Determination of Employee Perception The aspect of employee perception is primarily considered to be an imperative feature which tends to make vast difference in maintaining the workplace quality. On the basis of the responses to the questionnaire relating to people equity, whether the Ã¢â¬Å"perception is realityÃ¢â¬ can be determined by taking into concern certain valuable conditions. In this similar context, whether the Ã¢â¬Å"perception is realityÃ¢â¬ can easily be determined if the personnel of a particular organization bear the appropriate behavior with the strategies of the organization and if the staff possess the talents as well as necessary information as well as resources to implement the organizational strategies. Moreover, whether the Ã¢â¬Å"perception is realityÃ¢â¬ can also be determined if the employees of the organization bear superior level of commitment along with involvement in completing their respective job tasks. There lie certain effective practices in order to handle employee perception when the concerns of the employees are not believed to be valid. In order to handle employee perception, the organizations should direct or administer their working personnel to possess the accurate behavior aligned with organizational strategies. Moreover, the organizations can handle the perception of the employees by providing effective training along with valuable information to the employees for the purpose of executing business strategies. In order to assure the concerns of the employees, the or ganizations might provide the disconfirming evidence that by not directing the employees to possess exact behavior aligned with organizational strategies, the organizations cannot invest their valuable resources wisely in relation to people equity (Mardiana, 2012). Priority of the Actions Relating to Public Equity In relation to people equity, the highest priority actions include the introduction as well as the development of human resource (HR) systems and formation of innovative technological advancements. Moreover, the other priority actions include organizing a sound organizational structure and effective leadership. These particular actions need to be executed by the business organization in order to diminish significant gaps in alignment and engagement of the employees. Moreover, apart from diminishing
Monday, July 22, 2019
Enhancing IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks Essay Abstract Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless network is a very important standard especially today that wireless technologies are very popular due to its effectiveness and usefulness. However, the standard supports the use of omni-directional antenna which radiates and receives signals in all directions that does not support spatial reuse and does not have high capacity and gain. Research studies show the benefits and advantages of using directional antennas instead of omni-directional antenna in wireless networks. Spatial reuse and high capacity are both very important especially today that the wireless networks are increasingly deployed due to the demand and needs of the users. But, as mentioned, IEEE 802.11 supports the utilisation of omni-directional antenna and not of directional antenna, thus to be able for directional antenna to be at its optimal use, the IEEE 802.11 protocols must be amended to be able to address problems associated with the use of directional antenna. Directional antenna or directivity of an antenna can be created using antenna elements that are combined to form an array. Smart antennas which are becoming popular today have achieved directivity due to the techniques employs with it. Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Due to technological development in data and telecommunications during the past years, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) of the United States developed standards and guidelines to ensure orderly transfer of information between two or more data communication systems using different equipment with different needs. Standards and protocols are useful in ensuring that equipments such as computers, mobile phones, and communication devices from different manufacturers and providers have established compatibility and interoperability. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã However, due to rapid technological development and introduction of newer technologies brought about by the increasing demands and needs of users, some standards are needed to be enhanced and improved. This is because as newer technologies are created, more and more data are needed to be transmitted requiring more capacity for the existing infrastructures. If standards and protocols are not improved, existing communication infrastructures will only have limited capacity causing serious problems such as interference and slow speed. People nowadays always demand for real-time communication of various data such as video, audio, pictures and multimedia. Background Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the most innovative technologies today has been the wireless communication technology. Wireless technology encompasses the use of television and radio, mobile phones, wireless internet connection and computing system which are all very important for communication needs, eliminating the need for cables and wires and making possible the communication even in the remotest areas as along as there is available signal. WLANs increased the degree of mobility which are not possible using the conventional local area networks. In mobile phone communication alone, development has been tremendous that from analogue to GSM, now comes the 3G and 4G mobile systems. In the internet technology, connections have developed from ISDN to dial-up to DSL and now Wireless LAN which is very popular today. Communication between computers and mobile phones are also now possible with the GPRS technology. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These technologies are primarily intended for easy and real-time communication brought about by fast-paced lifestyle of people and also because of globalization. Mobile data and communications have become important for personal, professional, and business use. Because there are so many manufacturers and service providers from different locations, and also because of the popularity of these technologies, the IEEE developed the IEEE 802.11 which is a standard particularly intended for Wireless Local Area Networks. However, as WLAN experienced development and are improved, the IEEE 802.11 is also needed to be enhanced to be able for WLANs to be at their optimum performance. Additionally, because of the many uses and demands for WLAN, it has been increasing deployed causing interference between transmissions. Interference in data communications is a serious problem for it caused delay of transmission and alterations or distortion of signals that caused unreliable, unclear and error in messages received. The use of directional antenna is a well known method to reduce interference and to increase the range and capacity of wireless networks (Zhu et al, 2005). However, the IEEE 802.11 is not designed for the use of directional antennas. This project which is focused on the enhancement of the IEEE 802.11 using directional antennas and multiple receivers is important to be able to determine in-depth what improvement and advantages can directional antennas and multi-receivers can contribute to the current IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks standard. Literature Review Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This part of this proposal reviews literatures that describe the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard in details to be able to determine the needs for the enhancement of the standard. The literature review also provides earlier research about the functions and advantages of directional antennas This review is a brief discussion providing an overview of the detailed review of literatures that will be provided in the chapters of the research study. 3.1. The IEEE 802.11 Wireless Network Standard Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aside from promoting interoperability, the IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless network was created to deliver services that were previously found only in wired networks but have been found out to be possible using wireless networks; to achieve high throughput; for highly reliable data delivery; and for continuous network connection (Ergen, 2002). As a standard, the IEEE 802.11 established the network architecture, components, type of equipments and set of services offered that must be complied with by wireless network administrators and providers. These are also known as the physical layer and that IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard provides a number of physical layer options in terms of data rates, modulation types and spreading spectrum techniques (Ergen, 2002). This means that the medium, the path that the signal transmitted and received via the WLAN, the range, location, frequency to be used and the type of antenna to be used are all determined by the IEEE 802.11 standard. IEEE 802.11 does not only specify the physical layer characteristics but also the link layer protocol for medium access in broadcast channels (Dham, 2003). The medium access control protocol is designed for the specified physical layer characteristics thus any changes made in the physical layer also requires significant alterations in the MAC protocol. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The MAC layer of the standard defines two different access modes: the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) and the Point Coordination Function (PCF) (Xu Saadawi, 2003). DCF is a mechanism which is a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. The standard allows the use of a basic access method or an optional handshake which is done by exchanging Request to Send (RTS) and Clear to Send (CTS) messages which are also the frame sent from the source to the destination and an acknowledgement from the destination that the frame was received correctly (Erger, 2005). These frames or control packets contain the proposed duration of data transmission while nodes or stations within the vicinity of communicating nodes overhear either of these control packets and suspend transmission for this proposed duration (Choudhury et al, 2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This process unable the nodes or devices to communicate directly with all other devices and for a wireless device to be able to transmit and receive at the same time thus the IEEE 802.11 MAC implements a network allocation vector (NAV) which is a value that indicates to a station the amount of time that remains before the medium becomes available (Erger, 2005).Ã With this standard, directional antenna is obviously not utilised because in using directional antennas, it is possible to carry out multiple transmissions in the same neighbourhood provided that the beamwidth of the directional transmissions is not very large (Choudhury et al, 2002). 3.2. The Directional Antenna Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã An antenna is one or more electrical conductors of a specific length that transmits radio waves generated by a transmitter or that collects radio waves at the receiver (Frenzel, 1994). It is a basic component of every wireless networks, thus it must be chosen carefully depending on how it will be used. WLAN commonly used omni-directional antenna which allows for transmission and reception of messages in any direction (Frenzel, 1994) which is commonly used in wireless internet connections and wireless telecommunications. However, because the transmitted signal is exposed in any direction, interference with other signal has been a problem. In search for the solution with the problem of interference, various research (Dham, 2003; Zhu et al, 2005; Choudhury et al, 2002) have been focused on the use of directional antenna in WLANs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The primary advantage of directional antenna is that it eliminates interference from other signals being received from all directions except the direction of the desired signal (Frenzel, 1994). It was found out that the use of directional antenna for transmission gives the highest capacity, allows spectrum reuse, and provides range extension (Zhu et al, 2005). At the receiver, the antenna is pointed directly at the station to be received thus rejecting signals from transmitters in all other directions (Frenzel, 1994). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another advantage of directional antenna over omni-directional is that there is greater efficiency of power transmission while when omni-directional antenna is used at the transmitter side the transmitted power goes off in all directions wasting a significant amount of power (Frenzel, 1994). It is argued that all messages should be sent in directional mode to take advantage of this gain (Zhu et al, 2005). Choudhury et al (2002) conducted a study and proposed a protocol that exploits the benefits of using directional antenna namely spatial reuse and higher transmission range. On the other hand, the use of directional antenna also poses some problems such as higher collision probability. That is, as space is segmented and the carrier is reused with directional antennas, the amount of MAC information required for conflict-free transmission increases (Zhu et al, 2005). Because the current IEEE 802.11 standard does not support spatial reuse, several problems may occur when directional antennas are used without changing the modifying the existing protocol. Collision occurs due to the deafness of the nodes as these nodes are immersed in only one direction. And because of this deafness, the transmitting nodes will send RTS packets repeatedly which is a waste of bandwidth (Zhu et al, 2005). The research study conducted by Zhu et al (2005) focused on solving the problems caused by the spatial reuse which is higher collision probability and proposed a protocol called sectorised 802.11 MAC protocol. These two studies along with the other studies serve as the framework of this research. To create an antenna with directivity and gain, two or more antenna elements are combined to form what is known as an array (Frenzel, 1994). Antenna array has the capability of spatial signal separation and could radiate frequency energy towards a desired receiver with narrow beamwidth and null towards an interfering terminal to reduce the negative impact of multi-path and co-channel interference (Zhou, 2006). Phased array antenna systems are an example of an array. Phased array antennas consist of an array of antenna elements connected by a feeder or adder network arranged so that their individual signals combine to provide maximum gain in one direction while minimising it in other directions (Dham, 2003). There is also what is called smart antenna which is consist of multiple antenna elements arranged in a special configuration and connected through complex weights (Zhou, 2006). Smart antenna Switched beam and adaptive array antenna are the two major categories of smart antenna. Switched beam is the simplest smart antenna with a number of fixed beams in predetermined directions at the antenna site (Zhou, 2006). Adaptive array on the other hand uses a complex signal processing algorithm to continuously detect multi-path and interference among desired signal (Zhou, 2006). The studies about the applications of smart antennas in wireless networks are also related and will be useful in the completion of this research study.Ã Zhou (2006) added that a smart antenna can be applied to all current major wireless protocols and industrial standards to achieve higher system capacity, larger network coverage and higher data rate thus smart antenna must be further investigated to determine what it can contribute to the enhancement of IEEE 802.11 with directional antennas. Aims and Objectives Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In conducting any research, it is important that definite sets of objectives are present.Ã These objectives will serve as the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s guide in conducting the data gathering, data analysis and conclusion formulation. The primary objective of the research is to provide a protocol designed for the utilisation of directional antennas in wireless local area networks. Such protocol is proposed to be used in the deployment of WLAN using directional antennas thus it includes some amendments on the original standards, architecture, and physical layer. However, this general aim is an umbrella objective that would dictate the general path that the research will take. Within this umbrella objective are the specific aims of the research that will allow the researcher to touch the important aspects of the topic. These specific aims are the following: To identify the problems associated with the current protocols to determine the necessary adjustments or enhancement that are needed to be done; To determine the characteristics of directional antennas and what it can contribute to improve the capabilities of the wireless local area networks; To evaluate the advantages of having multiple receivers in wireless local area networks; To investigate on the differences of the current protocol and the proposed protocol and determine the limitations of the latter; and To test the effectiveness of the proposed standard. Intellectual Challenge Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The most intellectual challenge on this research is the proposal itself. The IEEE 802.11 is developed by reliable engineers and to propose an enhancement for this standard is a big challenge thus the research study should be based on reliable data. The proposed protocol should also be tested on using a prototype and accurate calculations to ensure that the outcome of the studies is viable. Research Program 6.1 Research Methodology The method of collecting data for the dissertation will be composed of two methodologies. The first methodology is review of related literature or secondary sources.Ã Reviewing earlier studies and other related literature would allow the researcher to become familiar with the already accepted theories and statements pertaining to the topic. The sources should be from technical books, journals, earlier theses and published articles technical organisations such as the IEEE. The second methodology would be surveys and personal interviews. Technical professionals like engineers and technicians from different communication network companies and Internet service providers (ISP) will be surveyed using questionnaires that include questions that will determine the problems encountered with WLAN particularly with the use of the antennas they currently utilise, the solutions they are implementing and the improvement they would like to suggest and impose with the current standards. It is important that the views of these people be collected since they are the ones who are immersed in the realities of the WLAN conditions. They will be able to provide insights that will help the researcher in evaluating the current IEEE standard. This study will be using the descriptive research method where the general part of the paper will be dedicated to the description of the subject in question. Descriptive research intends to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study (Creswell, 1994). It is also concerned with relationships and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. In addition, such approach tries to describe present conditions, events or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research (Creswell, 1994). The use of the descriptive method also suggests that the research will be focusing on obtaining qualitative data. Qualitative research is an umbrella that refers to various research traditions and strategies. The research will be carried out systematically. First, the researcher needs to review previous literature about the topic. This will allow the research the researcher to become familiar with what is already known about the topic. This will also allow the researcher to formulate the appropriate questionnaire that will be able to extract the most useful data. After the questionnaires have been completed, the researcher will have to tally the results and compare it with the findings of previous studies. If the finding of the research is the same as the findings of previous studies then the research can be supported by the findings of previous studies. On the other hand, if the findings of the research do not agree with past studies then the researcher must look back on previous studies to check if the findings of the studies are supported by other findings. This will ensure that the results of the research are not isolated and have been tested by other researches. 6.2 Schedule The Gantt chart below shows the schedule of activities involved in conducting the research study. Activity Date 1st Month 2nd Month 3rd Month 4th Month Data Gathering/Survey, Personal Interview Ã Ã Ã Ã Review of earlier studies and related literature/ Analysis of data collected Ã Ã Ã Ã Writing of the First Draft Ã Ã Ã Ã Development, Testing, Analysis, Evaluation and Documentation Ã Ã Ã Ã Revision of the study Ã Ã Ã Ã Formulation of the conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Completion of Writing Ã Ã Ã Ã Printing and binding of documents Ã Ã Ã Ã Submission Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Deliverables Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The research study will be organised as follows: A chapter describing the IEEE 802.11 A chapter describing the antenna used in WLAN and the problems using non-directional antennas A chapter describing the analysis of the problems A chapter that presents the data collected and the analyses of those data A chapter for the proposed solutions and the methods for testing the solutions A chapter that serves as documentations of the testing, calculations involved and evaluation of the proposed solutions Resources Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As already mentioned, this research study is highly technical nature thus resources must be from reliable sources such as the IEEE itself that developed the standard that will be enhanced and the Association for Computing Machinery which is an organisation that publishes reliable sources about computing and related technology. ACM also has a digital library where various literatures can be accessed. The World Wide Web is also be used as a source where different latest articles and journals can be found. University and public libraries will also be used where books that discuss the basic concepts of the subject and topics involved can be found. The researcher will need the cooperation of technical professionals, technicians and engineers whose personal knowledge will be needed as they answer the survey questionnaires. The researcher will also need to collaborate with an ISP or a network company to test the proposed standard, determining its effectiveness as well as its shortcomings. References: Choudhury, R., Yang, X., Ramanathan, R., and Vaidya, N. (2002) Using Directional Antennas for Medium Access Control in Ad Hoc Networks, MOBICOMÃ¢â¬â¢02, ACM: Georgia, USA Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Dham, Vikram (2003) Link Establishment in Ad Hoc Networks Using Smart Antennas Thesis in Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University retrieved online on December 13, 2006 http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05072003-180228/unrestricted/etd.pdf Erger, Mustafa (2002) IEEE 802.11 Tutorial, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California Berkeley, Retrieved online on Dec. 13, 2006 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~ergen/docs/ieee.pdf Frenzel, Louis (1994) Communication Electronics 2nd edition, Glencoe Macmillan/McGraw-Hill: Singapore Xu, Shugong Saadawi, Tarek (2003) Does IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol Work Well in Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks? Dept. of Electrical Engineering, City University of New York retrieved online on December 13, 2006 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://academic.csuohio.edu/yuc/mobile03/0415-xu.pdf Ã Zhu, Chenxi, Nadeem, Tamer and Agre, Jonathan (2005) Enhancing 802.11 Wireless Networks with Directional Antenna and Multiple Receivers, Fujitsu Laboratories of America, retrieved online on December 13, 2006 http://www.flacp.fujitsulabs.com/TM-PCR-TM-21.pdf Zhou, Hao (2006) The Improvements in Ad Hoc Routing and Network Performance with Directional Antennas, Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Retrieved online on December 13, 2006 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://lib.tkk.fi/Dipl/2006/urn007316.pdf
Capitalism vs Communism Essay Communism and capitalism, the totally opposite systems, always fight, although the capitalism is a bit older than the communism.The most important ones of these fights date back to the Cold War.This war was between the countries of Warsaw Pact and the ones of NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organization).Actually, the primary participants military forces never officially clashed directly, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, a nuclear arms race, espionage, proxy wars, propaganda, and technological competition, such as Space Race.All right, what are the differences between these two systems?They can be contrasted out in terms of the viewpoints about ecenomy and the social life. The viewpoints of these systems about the economy are totally different.The capitalist system uses the opinions of liberal economy policy. The most important person about this policy was Adam Smith.In his book The Wealth of Nations, he expressed that the free market, while appearing chaotic and unrestained, was actually guided to produce the right amount and variety of goods by so-called invisible hand.Smith made his laws about the economic system like the natural laws.According to him,the individuals by pursuing their own interest frequently promote the society more effectually than when they intend to promote it.This was the brief explanation of the invisible hand term and similar to food chains in an ecosystem.In free market system, individuals join the ecenomy as consumers, laborers, and investors.For example, as consumers, individuals influence production patterns through their purchase decisions, as producers they will change production in order to produce what is most profitab le.As laborers, individuals may decide which jobs to prepare for and in which markets to look for work.As investors, they decide how much of their income to save and how to invest their savings.These savings provide much of the money that businesses need to grow.All of these forms supply-demand and competition parts of the capitalist eceonomy.On the other hand, the communism system was set up on the Marxism ideology.Marx gave the importance to the labor and labor power.He named people who must sell their labor power as proleterians and ones who buy the labor power as capitalists.He observed that in practice every successful industry input unit-costs are lower than output unit-prices.Marx called the difference surplus value and argued that this had its source in surplus labor, the difference between what it costs to keep workers alive and what they can produce.At the same time, this value was the capitalists profit.In fact, this value was created by the proleterians labor-power.There fore it should belong to the laborer.Communism sort out this problem and suggests that people earn proportionally to their labor-power.It is totally against the individuals competition.On the contrary, it encourages the collectivism of labor.For instance, a professor can work as a construction worker for the building necessity of the country in order to shorten the building time.After Long Walk of Mao in 1949, China became an communist country.However Chinas communism was different from the others.China wasnt a country of Cold War and Maoism, Far East version of Marxism-Leninism, was used in this country.In addition to the laborer, agriculture and villagers are given great importance by Mao because the life in China was associated with the soil.As it is said in the journal New China and the Old : What China is able to do on top of that, which other capitalist countries cannot, is use the power of the State plan large projects and harness both private and public companies to achieve them, today China uses the power of seeming communism to become big capitalist.Their actual political system is now capitalism. In addition to viewpoints about economy, their perspectives about social life are totally different.The capitalism encourages the individualism. Competition is the main element of individualism.Each individual must be better than the others to earn his life as if he were an animal trying to survive in the wild nature.This leads bad emotions to spread out in the society, such as mistrust, outrage ,and discrimination.Another result of capitalism is consumerism.In capitalism, the social life is formed with respect to the principles of Consume-Obey-Die.People dont have enough time to think, and examine their lives.They are encouraged to consume without thinking what will happen as a result of their actions.This cause people become alienated from production.In other words, this led people to become unaware the things which they produce, why they produce these and the results of their actions.On the other hand, as it is said in the journal Cuba, change is in the air: Its like young people here are in a cocoon, preparing and preparing themselves until they can one day break free and fly away., there is a closed social structure life in the communist countries.In fact, this is not the real property of communism.The reason for this is the real communism will not exist unless the borders of countries are removed. The system which now exists in the communist countries is not real communism, it is the dictatorship of proleteriat.Collectivism is also another content of communism.Communism encourages collectivism against the individualism.In communism, there is no family life because it is viewed as the rest of feudalism.People live in the units named as commune.They eat food at the refectories and sleep in the dormitories. To sum up, communism and capitalism have some problems.The principles of capitalism is against the humanity which is formed by the things which distinguish a human from an animal.Capitalism leads to an idea which is that all the actions done in order to get money can be acceptable.Imperialism, the fundamental necessity to maintain capitalism, is the biggest enemy of the humanity.World War 1, the war in Iraq, and in Palestine and terrorism in Turkey are some examples of violonce created by imperialism.On the other hand, the viewpoint of communism about the family life is wrong.This also causes big restriction in human life.In the near future,there will be a system which is composite of capitalism and communism.In this system,the difference between the earnings of people will be very small ,and there will be family life not communes but there will be collectivism of labor.Imperialism will be no longer valid.The most important thing is that the children wont be killed in order to make p rofit.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Importance Of Vision And Mission Business Essay Organizational culture is an essential aspect to a company that can influence the strategy of the organization. Organizational culture can define as one organization share their own traditions, values, policies and attitudes during their daily operation (Luthoms 2002 ) Organizational culture is a basement of company strategy. Company can achieve their business goal very easily if they put organizational culture into their business vision and mission; make sure the culture can match with company strategy, in this way company culture can push their business keep going.. Each of organization has their unique culture which the company can benefit from it. The culture can give a large effect to employees, even the companys customers. As long as staffs know about the culture of company, they know the core business of the organizational hence the strategies they make will surround the organizational culture and that will not deviate their organizational goal. On the other hand, a clear and strong organizational culture cans attract customers attention that will let them know the business goal of company and they feel the organization is formal and official(Robbins.PJudge.A 2010).Strategy can be defined as Match Companys internal resource with opportunity to create an external factor (David.R. 2007) Sometimes companies have to choose one of strategy form many of them. Before they do that, do strategy analysis is necessary, strategy can be changed, but organizational culture can not be replaced. Let see some detail regarding how organizational culture influence company strategy with relevant example. Importance of vision and mission Most of successful companies are match their organizational culture with business visions. They try to create a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance to ensure employees can work effectively and customers can fully understand what the organization is about. Business vision and mission should answer two basic questions:what do we want to become? and what do we want to do in long-term?(Huczynski.A Bunchan.A 2007) that is looks like a guideline to encourage employees moving forward ,a good vision can affect bother side, internal and external there is also a goal in their mind which can encourage staffs work in a positive way. Business vision and mission can make organization become stable. Organization should make their business vision and mission with organizational culture clear enough, not only for motivate employees, but for their business partners and customers as well. There are two examples show how vision and mission support company to do business. 1. Durex Company A good example is Durex Company. When we mention the brand Durex the first item comes out is condom and most of people will feel embarrassed. Employees can not advertise their products easily if they feel like that and their business can not become successful. However, the organizational culture they create can balance this negative effect. The culture is Successful; Social responsible and Lively (SSL) which means Durex Company will do a successful business, to fulfill social responsibility and make the life become great. The wonderful part is Social responsible. On the employees side, the organizational culture try to tell them the company you work for is not a simple manufactory to produce condoms, the brand Durex can represent a social healthcare organization. They put the social responsible into their business mission and vision; besides produce their products another companys mission which is more significant, to publicize health sexual behavior to their customer, especially you ng generation and teach them how to prevent the disease by use condoms .Employees who work for Durex is not just a seller or producer, they are people who provide knowledge of health as well. Such as, what is healthy sexual behavior and how important to prevent HIV in our life In this way employees will feel proud and confident during the daily operation. Because Durex Company has a positive organization culture and they can match it very well with their business vision and mission most of countries government are support them when Durex extend their market and do marketing research that why the brand can become famous and has a good reputation all over the world. Durex is a healthcare company and fulfills society responsible, not just a producer and they are one of successful international company in the world, their product has been proved by World Health Organization (WHO) that all benefit form they have a clear vision and mission and transfer an obscure topic become acceptable. 2. Dell Company It is not enough only ask employees understand the business mission and vision; actually organizational culture can support the company from side, employees side and customer side. Make sure employees understand is the first step, as long as employees know about the organizational culture, they can explain to their customers very easily and the decision they make will around the core business of company that is good for company to advertise themselves. (Clegg Kornberger 2006).For instance employees who work in Dell Company can demonstrate their organizational culture to public very well. As we know Dell Company is one of famous computer organization that has been included in the 500 largest companies in the world. The brand, DELL is quite welcome because of they have a good business mission and vision which is Listen, Learn and Deliver, means listen feedback from their customer, keep learning new technique to improve quality of products and deliver their service to customer. Actually , Dells organizational culture is more likely a customer service strategy to build a long-term relationship with customers. And win customer loyally Base on the Dell Companys culture, after customer purchase computers from internet or book by telephone, they will deliver the goods to their home, and we know none of company like did that for their customer, expect Dell. When employees deliver products to customers home, they can performance their organizational culture to them, such as help customer to check is that what the customer need in the box? After that, help customer to check the computer is working or not. If everything is correct, ask customer to sign on the feedback form. Finally, employees will announce to customer if they need technique support they can call customer service number in Dell Company and they will come to you within 3 working days. Because of employees are fully understand the organizational culture and they can show it to customer by good service quality that why the brand Dell can get customer loyalty. Dell Company use employees as media to transfer their organizational culture to public and customers are truly believe they can do a good job. We can see a concrete example which is customer will pay the full price first on internet when they buy Dell computer, after that customer will wait about 5 working days for deliver product to their home. Customers are willing to pay first, and wait company come back to them; this kind of customer behavior which can explain their customer service strategy is successful, because of Dell follows their business mission and vision. Until now, there is no customer complain regarding deliver product delay. Personality, Durex Company and Dell Company are very good example to match organizational culture with business vision and mission and bring a positive effect to internal and external. Strong and weak organizational culture Create a strong organizational equal to build a stable basement for company. Employees have the same option about core business of organization and a strong organizational culture will affect members behavior. (Hellriegel 2009 )It is looks like behavior control, make sure staffs performance on the same level..Strong organizational can reduce employee turnover rate as well that can create a kind of internal organizational climate which can attract employees work for company(Schein.H 2010) that can support company carry out recruitment strategy. TheÃ recruitment strategyÃ is a complete mix of the recruitment processes, targets and approach to hire the best talents employees for the job market and control turnover rate.Ã Organization can save cost and time if they have a low turnover rate. Employees leave organization for many different reasons that why company have to use culture to unite them as a team. However Strong organizational culture is not means management level use inte rnal culture to force their members that is not the purpose. The correct way is that make sure employees understand the organizational culture, each of them can transfer the culture to their own understanding. Company need to use organizational culture to persuade members, not force (Hellriegel 2009 ) After staffs understand it, they will follow by themselves. As long as employees can find their expectation in the company they will stay here for a long time. On the other hand, week organizational culture means the internal culture is not clear or lack of explanations and staff control, employees will lose business goal and guideline, in this way, perhaps members will leave the organization that should be improved if company wants to reduce turnover rate. After employee leave, they have to spend more money to organize an interview to hire new employees to replace employees who just leave. Otherwise, company need to provide formal training selection for new staffs and the most signifi cant point is new employees need some time to know about the new working environment and they can not cooperate with their colleague that will make the daily operation become ineffective. The following paragraph will demonstrate a relevant example to support how important to build a strong organizational culture to control turnover rate. Resort world sentosa Singapore Resort world sentosa(RWS) Singapore is a good example to explain how strong organizational culture to help company become successful. RWS is a large resort which provides service and entertainment and there is more than 2000 staffs work for them. It is hard to do a successful business if RWS does not have a strong organizational culture. Let image, they have such a large group of employees, if organizational culture is not strong enough that will lead to employees are not loyal to the organization, turnover will increase and employees performance will float up and down. First of all, let see what the culture of RWS is. They call is as RWS fun which means Responsible, Warm, Supersize and Fun. The organizational culture try to encourage employees become a responsible person in the daily life, when staffs deliver service to guests, try to let customer feel warm and welcome, and remember to supersize their guests, let them feel something different or special. Lastly, create fun to your c olleagues and customers; let everyone enjoy themselves in Resort world sentosa, no matter your staffs or guests. Actually, the culture, RWS fun gives employees what they expect, everyday staff come to Resort World not only for work, create fun as well. The organization culture make Resort World become a large family and all of members have been united by a same belief. The company prints the organizational culture behind the staff card that can make sure each of members can remember it. RWS fun creates a positive working attitude to each of employees that will persuade staffs stay here. The organizational culture plays a good role in recruitment strategy, as a large company, they can not only focus on hire staffs from outside, get current employees loyalty is equally important. Let us image, Resort World has 2000 employees, the organization will lack of cooperation if employees are keeping resign and the whole organization will become unstable and their business can not moving forwa rd. Organizational culture and strategy in action Organizational culture affects strategy development in many ways, company have to base on their companys culture to plan a long-term or short-term strategy. On the other hand, a good organizational culture has to support companys future plan as well. Company need to connect internal culture with strategy Organizational culture and strategy they have a supportive relationship. Organizational culture is the key of company make a strategy Company carry out a strategy have to show to public their particular internal culture, which means use their own method to achieve their organizational goal. The strategy is a kind of reaction of organizational culture. Before a strategy takes action that should be realities, make sure that can be accepted by customers or business partners and manage the cost, increase revenue as well. On the other hand, management level need to forecast barriers between company and their goal, provide some idea to prevent it. The following paragraph will shows how the organizational culture of KFC to influence their strategy in action Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) Let use KFC as a example to explain how organizational culture influence strategy in action.KFC is one of successful fast-food restaurant and famous all over the world. Normally, KFC only provide fries chicken with chips to customers, however what they did in China really help them to occupy market in this country. Nowadays, KFC try to do some innovation about their food. They offer congee, rice and some Chinese traditional food to match with the local culture and you can not find this kind of food in KFC where local in the other countries. KFC is first restaurant to do this kind of innovation they take the opportunity to attract customer to come. Otherwise, KFC also deliver mock chicken and vegetarian burger in India and Canada, there are some people are vegetarian, because of religion, this kind of food innovation can be accepted very easily. After the innovation, KFC become more competitive. As we know, a strong competitor of KFC is McDonalds which deliver fast-food as well, both of them are international brand, however, the action about food innovation is base on the KFCs organizational culture which is Positive encouraging Restaurant manager first and Work to excellent. In fact, it is not difficult to find out the food innovation is kind of positive encourage which make KFC become more competitive than McDonald in the market. Because of the one of organizational culture in KFC is encourage employees do a positive change, hence the strategy they did in China and India is quite creative. Employees transfers their organizational culture becomes a real strategy action and that is very successful, the new innovation is not cost too much, but bring in good revenue for KFC and their market become stable. On the other hand, because the innovation is successful that encourage KFC keep doing the food innovation, every quarter customer can find out new thing on their menu, most of them are very good food combination, customers are like them so much. The example can d emonstrate that organizational culture how organizational culture bring a positive effect to strategy in action Conclusion Every organization should build an organizational culture before business start, base on the culture to show their own feature and when the top management level wan to plan their future strategy for the company, the strategy they make have to match with organizational culture and direct go to the companys mission and vision.. Create a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance to ensure employees can work effectively. Weak organizational culture is lack of control, sometimes that will confuse staffs as well, hence as a successful organization, internal culture should be clear and strong enough to unit all the employees in the organization, make sure members can explain the culture by their own understanding.( Alvesson.M 2002)On the other hand organizational culture need to be demonstrate to customer, let them know what the company is and what kind of business they running. On the other hand, strong organizational culture can decrease turnover rate and win employees loyalty which help company carry out recruitment strategy, low turnover rate can make the daily operation become effective that can prevent employees performance float up and down. Decision or strategy they make should follow the companys culture as well. Indentify the merit and demerit form internal and external; recognize the business stage of company, is that time to grow or defend. Organizational culture need to give a positive influence to strategy in action. The strategies they choose have to support company increase revenue and control cost. Internal culture and strategy have to match each other ,and when company carry out the strategy make sure the that can be accepted by local government politics.( Michael A. HittÃ R. Duane Ireland 2008)The organizational culture is the basement of organization, all the strategy has to around the culture. In this way, the organizational goal can be achieved in a successful way.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Mythology: Dionysus And Semele Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Semele was the daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, king and queen of Thebes, and the mother of Dionysus, god of wine. Zeus fell madly in love with her and made an oath to do anything that she asked. Hera, the jealous wife of Zeus,realized Zeus was in love with Semele and tricked Semele into asking Zeus to let her see him in his majesty. Bound by an oath, Zeus appeared before the unfortunate woman in all his divine glory. (Morford-Lenardon 187) As she looked at him, she was consumed by the lightening bolts and light that radiated from him. Zeus was able to rescue her unborn child, Dionysus, and hid him in his side until it was ready to be born. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hermes carried Dionysus to be cared for by the nymphs of Nysa-the loveliest of earth's valleys.(Hamilton 65) When Dionysus had grown up, he wandered to many far and strange places. Everywhere he went he taught men the culture of the vine and mysteries of his worship and everywhere he had been, he was accepted as a god. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Dionysus went to Thebes to establish his worship, since that was his mother's city. He was accompanied by the Maenads. Pentheus, the King of Thebes, was not happy with the behavior of this group of strangers. He ordered his soldiers to imprison the visitors, but he had no idea that Dionysus was a new god. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The soldiers tried to imprison the maidens but said that the doors unbarred themselves. Pentheus was furious. He ordered his soldiers to imprison Dionysus but the prison could not hold him. Dionysis tried to show that the wonders of this new worship of a new and great god was divine but when Pentheus only heaped insults and threats upon him, Dionysus left him to his doom.(Hamilton 71) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When Pentheus went to pursue the maidens that had escaped his prison, many Theban women joined him, and that is when Dionysis made them mad and they thought Pentheus was a wild beast and tore him apart.That is when Pentheus realized that he had fought with a god and must now pay with his life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Some time during his wanderings, Dionysus came upon the princess of Crete, Ariadne, when she was utterly desolate, having been abandoned on the shore of the island of Naxos by the Athenian prince, Theseus, whose life she had saved. (Hamilton 67) Dionysus rescued her and later fell in love with her. When she died, Dionysus took her crown and put it among the stars. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã His mother, Semele, whom he had never seen, was not forgotten.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Handguns in America: To ban or not to ban. Americans should be able to have, own and carry handguns if they feel the need to protect them. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a statement that is a topic of major debate and has been for years. There are proponents and oppositionists with regards to handgun laws and rights. Both sides have strong, seemingly valid arguments. In the end, we should have that choice. One of the strongest arguments for banning handguns: An increase in the availability of handguns equals an increase in crimes using handguns. Ã¢â¬Å"Handguns were used in murder more than all other weapons combined.Ã¢â¬ Page 75 (Every handgun is aimed at you) Josh Sugarman is for banning handguns arguing, the higher number of handguns, and the higher number of crime. That fact may be accurate according to the FBIÃ¢â¬â¢s Uniform Crime Reports. However, who is to say about the likely hood of the murder occurring regardless if the gun was available or not. If someone has a gun, they are more likely going to use it. But if someone is murder-minded, they will commit the murder, regardless of the weapon. To argue this point further, John R. Lott Jr. in his book The Bias Against Guns, mentions a study from 1977 to 1992. The research showed that the states that adopted right to conceal laws had a decrease in crimes with guns immediately following the passing of those laws. (pg 228 the bias against guns) Suicide and handguns: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦.the ready availability of handguns in the moments of despair takes thousands of lives each year.Ã¢â¬ (page 35 Every handgun is aimed at you) The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention states that: Ã¢â¬Å"Firearms account for 50 percent of all suicides. Death by firearms is the fastest growing method of suicide.Ã¢â¬ Just as the murder-minded individual h... ...ection of this site, deals specifically with statistics on firearms and suicide rates. Sowell, Thomas. "RealClearPolitics - Judges, the Constitution & Gun Control Laws." RealClearPolitics. Creators Syndicate Inc., 29 June 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2012. The author is a general columnist and writes political articles including publishing weekly articles in Forbes magazine. He is a respected top economist. His article shows the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s view on how stricter laws will increase gun violence. Sugarmann, Josh. Every Handgun Is Aimed at You: The Case for Banning Handguns. New York: New, 2001. Print. The author is the executive director/founder of Violence Policy Center. He has published two books on the subject of guns and has written many articles for several newspapers across the country. This book looks at gun violence in America and why we should completely ban handguns.
Postmodern Anxiety & the Aesthetics of Destruction To borrow a term from the seminal postmodern scholarship of Ihab Hassan, we are living in a moment of indeterminacy. As linearity went the way of modernism, today's culture is one of interconnectivity, webs and networks. We privilege teamwork, democracy, easy and equal access to knowledge above all else. Aesthetics of art and the rhetoric of corporation (that is in turn borrowed from artistic practices) are changing as a result. Formalism has given way to more open creativity. Companies are Ã¢â¬Å"flatÃ¢â¬ or horizontally-integrated, workers may even be skilled beyond menial tasks. But what gets lost in this tangled utopia of webs and equality is determinable truth. Because of the new corporate rhetoric its easy to forget that we are still undeniably situated in a hegemonic, global, (late-)capitalist culture. And although because of increases in technology, the general public has access to more knowledge than ever before, with these advances also comes unparallel access to a proli feration of useless information. What results from this fetishizing of democratization on all fronts is a tension between revelation and concealment, sense and nonsense. The cultural anxiety, which this in turn creates, has led the United States into a war against a faceless enemy for the second time in only a few decades. The indeterminate form of communism which we once fruitlessly battled has today taken on the amorphous visage of terrorism. Ultimately, this ideology of war, created by the uneasiness of a culture of indeterminacy, is just as transparent as the technological interfaces (computer and television screens) that its images are projected on. Current artistic practices mirror this war-motivati... .... 5 May 2005. Gibson, William. Introduction to Agrippa: A Book of the Dead. . 5 May 2005. Hutcheon, Linda and Natoli, Joseph, eds. A Postmodern Reader . State University of New York Press. Albany : 1993. Jeffords, Susan & Rabinovitz, Lauren ed. Seeing Through the Media: The Persian Gulf War. Rutgers University Press, New Jersey : 1994. Metzger, Gustav.< http://www.391.org/manifestos/1960metzger.htm> 5 May 2005 Nike buys streets and squares: Guerrilla marketing or collective hallucination? 10 Oct. 2003. < http://www.0100101110101101.org/texts/nike_prelease1-en.html>. 5 May 2005. Websites Consulted: 0100101110101101.org. < http://www.0100101110101101.org > 5 May 2005. Etoy:http://www.etoy.com/ 5 May 2005 . Nikebiz.com: http://www.nike.com/nikebiz/nikebiz.jhtml?page=0