Thursday, June 11, 2020
Motivation of Behavior Research Paper (Essay Sample) Content: Motivation of BehaviorStudent Name:Course:Instructor:Date:Motivation of BehaviorB.F skinners theory is one that focuses on the observable behavior as opposed to what happens in the mind. His arguments were based on a view that explained classical conditioning was far too simple to be applied to explain human behavior that is highly complex. His approach focused on operant conditioning. In his view the best approach to understand the human behavior is to pay attention to the causes of an action, as well as, its consequences. In operant conditioning, the intentional actions by an operant have an impact on the external environment. He looked into the processes that were likely to be behind particular operant behaviors. This paper shall focus on reinforcement learning in education and behavioral therapy in the modern-day.Operant conditioning is a term that refers to the altering of ones behavior using reinforcement that is given after a certain desired response. Th ere are various responses that are related to behavior. The first one is a neutral operant that does not change the probability of a repeat of a certain behavior. The next one is reinforcers that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated either positively or negatively. The final response is punishment that weakens behavior but decreases the probability of behavior being repeated (Grusec, Hastings, 2015).Positive reinforcement is believed to strengthen behavior by offering a consequence that is rewarding. Removal of certain reinforcers that are found to be unpleasant or negative reinforcement often strengthens behavior. It strengthens behavior since it removes or stops certain experiences that are found to be unpleasant. Punishment is described as opposite reinforcement since it is aimed at eliminating or weakening certain behavior as opposed to increase it. Punishment can be in the form of applying an unpleasant stimulus or removing stimulus that is rewarding. P unishment, as an approach of reinforcement learning has been found to be ineffective due to various reasons. This includes the fact that punishment does not lead to forgetting of the behavior rather it leads to suppression of certain behavior. Such behavior is likely to return when the punishment is withdrawn. It often leads to increased aggression in people who find it as a way to cope with issues. In some people, it can create fear that has potential to develop to undesirable behavior. Punishment also does not necessarily lead toward certain desired behavior rather it emphasizes on what should not be done (Grusec, Hastings, 2015). Application of Reinforcement Learning in EducationReinforcement is a process that expands conduct. In the classroom, reinforcement happens as instructors deal with the environmental occasions that students preferred ways of behaving expand the quality and future probability of that behavior. Reinforcement comes in two sortspositive and negative. Positive reinforcement happens when wanted behavior is fortified by the presentation of an unforeseen stimulus. The alluring, behavior expanding, contingent stimulus utilized amid positive reinforcement is alluded to as a positive reinforcer. A positive reinforcer is characterized as any external occasion that, when given in light of the behavior, builds the quality and recurrence of that behavior. Some usually utilized positive reinforcers as a part of the classroom are applause, consideration, tokens, and stickers (Neukrug, 2012).Negative reinforcement happens when desired behavior is reinforced by the removal of rewarding stimuli. The aversive behavior that is unforeseen stimuli that is removed in the event of negative reinforcement is referred to as a negative reinforcer (Grusec, Hastings, 2015). A negative reinforcer is characterized as any environmental occasion that, when taken away because of the behavior, builds the quality and recurrence of that behavior. Some generally u tilized negative reinforcers as a part of the classroom include taking away an aversive task such as homework or crossing out an errand. In the conventional learning circumstance operant learning applies to a great extent to issues of class and management of students, as opposed to learning substance. It is exceptionally important to molding skill performance. A basic approach to shape behavior is to give input on learner execution. This includes encouragement, affirmation, approval, and compliments to the learners. A variable proportion creates the most noteworthy reaction for students learning new tasks. At first reinforcement happens at continuous interims, and as the execution enhances reinforcement happens less often, until in the long run just excellent results are reinforced (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, Roche, 2001).For instance, in a case where teachers want to encourage students to participate in class, the teacher should compliment and encourage the students for efforts made regardless of whether it is correct or not. This could transition to praising the students only when they answer questions correctly. As the learners become excellent at participating in class, only the exceptional students will be complimented. Negative reinforcement can be applied in eliminating unwanted behavior such as dominating discussions in class. This can be attained by ignoring such students as opposed to drawing attention to them (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, Roche, 2001). Application of Reinforcement Learning in Behavioral TherapyBehavioral therapy borrows from the concept of behaviorism that emphasizes that learning occurs from our surrounding. In behavioral therapy, the main objective is to reinforce the positive conduct and eliminate the maladaptive behavior. As opposed to other types of therapy that are based on insight, behavioral therapy is action based. The techniques that are applied in behavioral therapy rely on the various principles that are highlighted in o perant conditioning. This includes reinforcement, punishment, as well as, other related techniques. These techniques are highly focused thus they can attain effective results at a faster rate. There are various strategies and techniques that are applied from operant conditioning in behavioral therapy. This includes token economies that rely on reinforcement to attain certain behavior in clients. The clients are allowed to earn tokens that can be traded for certain privileges or desired stimuli (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, Roche, 2001). This strategy is applied by parents to foster reinforce good behavior in their childre...
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Anonymity on the Internet Would you rather learn about someone via Internet interactions or face to face? I have noticed increased shadiness when it comes to identifying oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self on the internet, whether it be on a dating site, in email, through posting on Blogger-type sites, or in instant messaging. There seems to be two different types of people out there, those who are suspicious and those that just donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to care about who read their stuff. This is problematic in many ways. First off, there is the feeling of anonymity and that no one will really know who they are or what they are doing on the web, for example, adults that pose as teens to hopefully seduce a naÃ ¯ve boy or girl, or married/attached individuals that areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦So many people use online dating sites to find a mate, but how can you know what other person is telling you is accurate? On the other end of the spectrum, many people, namely, another friend of mine, Georgia (name has been changed) who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care who sees what she posts on Blogger and LiveJournal and just pours herself out. Personally, I find this a bit unsettling, as I think some details should just be kept to ones self! Perhaps this is part of the demise of the private individual. Because I am suspicious of others, I would never find myself spilling hugely personal details about my life online, however, I can see how those people use the Internet as a sounding board, like a therapist of sorts, or a place to vent and unload emotional baggage. I highly doubt that this will lead to the falling out of the therapist profession, as a cold and non-responsive computer screen cannot replace real people. This seems to also lead to a double life thing, and this is perfectly dangerous. YouÃ¢â¬â¢d never know John Doe who never cheats on his taxes or misses a Sunday congregation spends his afternoon chatting with pre-teen girls, as if he was a pre-teen boy, trying to get them to meet him at the McDonalds in the next city so he can rape and murder them. Scary! Nor would John Doe know that the innocent and naÃ ¯ve girl he is chatting with is a burly FBI agent just waiting in the wings to catch such aShow MoreRelatedOnline Anonymity On The Internet1880 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction Anonymity refers to the state of being unknown to most people, while anonymity on the internet refers to any interaction a user has that protects their identity or personal information from being shared with others online. It is mentioned in a source that anonymity has both its pros and cons, and in some cases may appeal to certain people where it does not appeal to others (Anonymity on the Internet). The issue of online anonymity is becoming increasingly important and ubiquitousRead More Sensible Anonymity on the Internet Essay1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSensible Anonymity on the Internet Abstract: This paper is an analysis of the anonymity of Internet users. Specifically, what are the benefits and disadvantages created by anonymity on the Internet, and how can the disadvantages be lessened without adversely affecting the benefits? The rapid growth of the InternetÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity is staggering. In 1990 few people outside the research community knew of it, and today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million Internet users worldwideRead More Internet Essay - Online Anonymity and Cyberspace Crime2064 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOnline Anonymity and Cyberspace Crime The 90s internet boom gave rise to new ways of writing in through access to cyberspace. What used to be printed or handwritten on physical surfaces such as paper, cardboard, or bulletin boards has changed to 0s and 1s, bits and bytes of digitized information that can be displayed thru the projections of computer screens. Moreover, the internet has made the process of publishing ones works, writing letters, or chatting with one another much easier andRead MoreAnonymous Communication On The Internet1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNow that the background of anonymity and pseudonymity has been discussed, the positive aspects of both can be evaluated. Ã¢â¬Å"Nearly 83 percent strongly or somewhat strongly agreed with the statement that anonymity Ã¢â¬Ëpromotes a livelier, more passionate discussionÃ¢â¬â¢ and slightly more than 94 percent said anonymity allowed participants Ã¢â¬Ëto express ideas they might be afraid to express otherwiseÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Rosenberry 13). These statistics are enforced by the observation that, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦anonymous communication also createsRead MoreInternet : A Powerful Resource For Web Users Everywhere1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction to Online Anonymity Anonymity is a powerful resource for web-users everywhere. It is how content creators learn to make top quality content. It can be a way to confess your feelings for someone-without actually telling them. You can share secrets and not be ashamed. When it is used as a platform of limitless self-expression Ã¢â¬â it is truly a good thing. The internet is home for many of us. Just about every single American person accesses the internet in some form. One of the largest usesRead MoreThe Epidemic Of Fake Accounts1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe online anonymity issue that arose ever since the internet had the ability to create profiles has grown to a something much re than some face every day. Millions of Ã¢â¬Å"fakeÃ¢â¬ accounts engulf us while feeding us untrustworthy texts without even knowing. These fake accounts have the most privileges when the secret of who the really are is never released. Having anonymity on social media gives users some sort of safety cape to be able to possi bly say whatever they feel. Some people take this tool andRead MoreAnonimity on the Web657 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesInternet is a network that can be used in many different ways and can be accessed from anywhere. Internet is being used in schools, ministries, hospitals, etc. When people use the internet, many of them choose to be anonymous. People choose to be anonymous to do everything they want without the risk of exposing their identity. This paper will list how being anonymous can be a double edged sword. Anonymity on the web is the way of hiding your identity in order to do anything freely without exposureRead MoreEthics And The Internet Essay1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthics and the Internet Ã¢â¬Å"Access to and use of the Internet is a privilege and should be treated as such by all users of this system (Internet Activities Board 1989).Ã¢â¬ If people would understand this statement and accept the truth of this statement, then the world would be a better place for everyone on the internet. There are an estimated 2.1 billion people that use the internet worldwide (Miniwatts Marketing Group 2011). The majority of people that use the internet are polite, civilized, and decentRead MoreSearch Engines : The Deep Web1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeing searched Ã¢â¬â namely the Deep Web. Standard search engines are not indexing most of the information on the Web. Not only the Deep Web is a majority of Web content submerged within these sites, but it is also some of the best information on the Internet. Deep Web is a term used for World Wide Web content that is not part of the Surface Web (which is indexed by standard search engines). A recent publication have explored what th e Deep Web is and the implications of it for users as Web searchers.Read MoreNegatives Of Anonymity940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe internet is everywhere! Today we are walking around with internet devices in our pockets, our smart phones. Have you ever been online on Facebook, YouTube, a blog, etc., and looked at the comments? While some of the comments can be heartfelt others can be negative. Ã¢â¬Å"You look like an ugly slobÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"who cares about youÃ¢â¬ -from no name. These comments are a growing problem. I hope to increase the awareness of media users on the pros and cons of using anonymity online. While elaborating with Guardian
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Would you think that one day men would no longer be the dominating gender in society, while women would be doing things thought unheard of before like working a career? In ancient Greece and pre-modern Norway authors began thinking up unthinkable situations for their times. These situations were based on questions very similar to these. These ideas were thought of as scary, fictional, and even comedic for their time. Gender roles in society are virtually thematic in the two stories A Dolls House and Antigone. A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, written by Henrik Ibsen is a story about the wife battling to hide a loan that kept her husband alive, because if anyone found out society would crash upon her for her bold actions. Antigone, written byÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He even suspects her of doing it but will not show it because heÃ¢â¬â¢s afraid of the idea of a woman doing so much. Because he places her in such a low level of stature believing that she is not even able of the task s he is further insulted. When Antigone explains why she has done what she did and the reasons why she did them Creon goes to say, Ã¢â¬Å"You alone, of all people in Thebes, see things that way.Ã¢â¬ (Sophocles31). Creon blatantly says this to disregard what a Ã¢â¬Å"womanÃ¢â¬ says. He means to knock her down and let her know that what she says is not important to him and his judgment. He says this not only because she is a woman, but also to somehow prove to himself that he knows better than her. When Krogstad demonstrates that he has little care for a woman rejecting his blackmail demands when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t frighten me. A sensitive, petted creature like you.Ã¢â¬ (Ibsen179). This is pretty much saying that he does not feel threatened by Norah because she is a woman and is seen as Ã¢â¬Å"helplessÃ¢â¬ . She is so underestimated that she feels insulted, because she has taken care of this loan she knows she can take care of the loose ends of Krogsta dÃ¢â¬â¢s shady blackmail escapade. It was proven that throughout these plays that women would often be insulted and angered by being lowered so much in the views of men. Probably the biggest comparison of the male characters in these
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Final Research: American Reality Show Vs. British Reality Show There was a war between Great Britain and America that ended a long time ago. Today these two cultures use this historical event as an excuse to argue about two shows on MTV. When the time a person floating the enormous database of Internet, it is often seen particular situations between Ã¢â¬ËhistoricalÃ¢â¬â¢ emotions still hits up the conversation. The hatred still causes an emotional war between people from two countries. This time, it takes on the two shows: Ã¢â¬ËJersey ShoreÃ¢â¬â¢ Vs. Ã¢â¬ËGeordie ShoreÃ¢â¬â¢, a spin-off shows for British TV show series. The fans of this Ã¢â¬Å"new showsÃ¢â¬ emphasizes each other is the Ã¢â¬Å"betterÃ¢â¬ show series. However, the basic story line and a concept for both shows are practically the same. The interesting factor about this unethical fight between two shows often calls for a debate. This mass communication currently going on can connect to few ethical theories, sub-theories, and application of semiotic models. Whethe r people like either show, these two reality shows are causing a mass of controversy between two different cultures. When there is a mass communication takes in, it is easily connecting to few ethical theories used while the discussion heats. Part of people from the argument uses deontological views that one show is better than the other or vise verse. It tends to seem as this particular groups use of theory as in obligation towards the favorite show as somewhat of defendant position andShow MoreRelatedSoccer Popular Sport1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUnited States was founded by the british. The most popular sport in great britain is soccer, but in the United States soccer is not the most popular sport. Soccer is viewed as a sport that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t very popular. Worldwide though there are 4 billion people who play the sport of football/soccer. Worldwide soccer is called football except in the United States where it is called soccer. The most popular sports in the united States are ho ckey, basketball, baseball and american football. Soccer isnÃ¢â¬â¢t even inRead MoreHoward Zinn s Views On American Revolution950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUniversity. These two historians viewed the nature of American Revolution from two opposite different perspectives. Zinn viewed the American Revolution as an effort to preserve AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s status; while Wood looked at Revolution as an event that incorporated sense of equality among all Americans. Zinn was able to present the argument better as evidences he provided to support his argument seemed to make more sense and were closer to reality. Howard argued American Revolution as an effort of members of colonialRead MoreComedy Is A Universal Language1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdelicious comedy in our lives. British TV comedy is no exception. British humor has key instructions from laughing at yourself, harsh sarcasm, and humor in about almost everything which evidently is portrayed all throughout British comedy television, like The Office, The Mighty Boosh, and Would I Lie to You? British television is like no other, and the comedy that comes from it is extremely alluring. There are quite a few differences when it comes to American versus British television, and to discoverRead MoreCompare the movie The Patriot with Historical Reality?2419 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesto give a sense of the scope of aspects involved in the American Revolution. Despite succeeding in this regard, it still lacks details that reveal the true complexity of the mixed sentiments present in this time period. Starting with the protagonist, Marion was originally the lead character in the script, but because of controversy and to allow for more dramatic storytelling, Martin was introduced. Martin is an amalgamation of several American Revolutionaries; Francis Marion, Elijah Clarke, DanielRead MoreThe Need for Diversity in the Fashion Industry1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshanger, It is harder to fit clothes to a curve and easier to fit clothes to a straight line. Magazines like Vogue have warmed to the idea of using fuller figured women, recently putting the glamorous and curvy Kate Upton on its American cover. (Wade, 2013) This essay will show why fashion models need to be healthy and diverse at any weight and not thin, the different eating disorders and it how affects us, complexes. The fashion industry is not an easy business and it has grown tremendously over theRead More Charles Yale HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Generals Die in Bed vs Colin McDougallÃ¢â¬â¢s Execution1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCharles Yale HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Generals Die in Bed vs Colin McDougallÃ¢â¬â¢s Execution As with any genre, all novels termed Ã¢â¬Ëwar storiesÃ¢â¬â¢ share certain elements in common. The place and time settings of the novels, obviously, take in at least some aspect of at least one war or conflict. The characters tend to either be soldiers or are at least immediately affected by the military. An ever present sense of doom with punctuated moments of peace is almost a standard of the war novel. Beyond theRead MoreThe Exploitation of Media1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFilms such as From Russia with love portrayed all Russian people as villains and helped reinforce the perception of the United States of America as being a superpower. Such films and ideas of propaganda played a role in British politics and allowed for the United Kingdom to show their involvement during the Cold War. As the Cold War tensions decreased and underwent a period of dÃ ©tente, the James Bond character adjusted and became friendlier towards Russia. However, the original storyline of JamesRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Founding Brothers 1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFounding Brothers Essay 17 Oct 2015 Shaan Sekhon The United States faced many challenges in the years following the revolutionary war. The themes discusses in the Ã¢â¬Å"Founding BrothersÃ¢â¬ show how difficult it really was to create a perfect union. Ellis shows that many factors went into decisions as theoretically simple as the location of the nations new capitol, to the morality of slave trade. Collaboration played a large role in the nations early years, as did the faith people put in its firstRead MoreIs Globalism Vs. Nationalism The Ideological Struggle Of The 21st Century?1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIs globalism vs. nationalism the ideological struggle of the 21st century? In the article Ã¢â¬Å"We Are Not the WorldÃ¢â¬ , Greg Ip provides the reader with compelling arguments that globalism is an ideology, and that the reaction against globalism, the belief that globalization is normal and good, surprised leaders on both sides of the left and the right. This is in part because these leaders do not believe that globalism is an ideology. However, Greg Ip argues that globalization is an ideology and providesRead MoreEnvironmental Influences On Childhood Obesity1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesObesity has become a large and dark reality in United States. For someone who does not have sociological imagination being overweight is the result of bad personal choices or genetic predisposition. (Crosnoe) Cultural beliefs and practices related to food and feeding vary among ethnic groups, and these differences may contribute to different patterns of obesity in children and youth, related to their ethnicity. As described in the epidemiological overview show higher than average obesity prevalence
Introduction Discrimination continues to run rampant throughout organizations in both the United States and worldwide. The Supreme Court case, Dukes vs. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., dealt with 1.5 million current and former female Wal-Mart employees that claim that they had been a victim of gender discrimination. The ensuing pages will discuss the specific issues that the plaintiffs encountered, followed by suggestions from a human resource managerÃ¢â¬â¢s stand point in rectifying adverse impact within the Wal-Mart organization. Gender Discrimination at Wal-Mart In the case of Dukes vs. Wal-Mart Stores Inc. (Dukes), the court found that there was a lack of significant proof that Wal-Mart had a general policy of discrimination (Schipani,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The plaintiffs involved in the Dukes case claimed to have endured sexist comments while receiving lower pay and watching their male counterparts advance at a quicker rate. (Bernardin Russell, 2013). They also claimed that the male dominated departments such as sporting goods, hardware, and garden, generally paid higher wages while offering more opportunities for advancement (Bernardin Russell, 2013). Statistically, women in hourly positions at Wal-Mart make $1,100.00 less annually than male hourly employees, and the salaried gap is $14, 500 a year (Hart, 2006). Researchers have proposed a variety of explanations for systematic gender inequality in the workplace. Cultural benefits, the actions of male employees, the actions of the female emp loyees, and the actions of the employer can contribute to intentional or unintentional gender discrimination (Ngo, Foley, Wong, Loi, 2003). It has also been mentioned that women make less money because their work environment is generally safer than the stereotypical male work environment; childcare, cashiers, and secretary positions as opposed to firefighters, truck drivers and construction workers (Parcheta, Kaifi, Khanfar, 2013). Perhaps the most dominant reasoning for women receiving less pay is the carrying over of biological roles into the workplace. Female employees often take time off to have a family, take care of a family, and are the primary caregiver of said family.Show MoreRelatedCurrent Ethical Issue in Business1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Globally, Wal-Mart is the second largest revenue generating company. It is surprising to see so many discriminating issues within the company. Women working for the company are consistently treated unfairly, yet other issues exist. It is as if Wal-Mart has fallen into the negative economic routine. The company is guilty of everyday social discrimination; gender discrimination is just one main focus of our discussion. The affects of gender discrimination affect how women are treatedRead MoreWal-Mart Sex Discrimination Lawsuit1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRunning head: WAL-MART SEX DISCRIMINATION LAWSUIT WAL-MART SEX DISCRIMINATION LAWSUIT Largest Case in US History Revives a Longstanding Debate By: Tambra Sullivan Minot State University BADM 537 Human Resource Management August 2011 Abstract The sex discrimination case against Wal-Mart, in which the U.S. Supreme Court handed an important victory to the retail chain on June 20, 2011, revives a longstanding debate: are disparities in the workplace due primarily toRead MoreWal-Mart Unethical Business Practice873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMANAGEMENT ESSAY WAL-MART UNETHICAL BUSINESS PRACTICE * General Description Wal-Mart is an American company specialized in mass-market retailing, founded by Sam Walton in 1962 in Arkansas. He made it into the leader in discount retailing that is today. In fact, the company is worldwide extended. With 16Ã¢â¬â¢389 billion $ of profit, Wal-Mart is the first world company in terms of sales and is considered as the biggest company in the United States. According to PBS, Ã¢â¬Å"Wal-Mart employs more peopleRead MoreWomen vs Walmart1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWOMEN VERSE WAL-MART Women Verse Wal-Mart, the Largest Class Action Lawsuit in History Jeremy Banks LEG100 October 31, 2012 Professor, Harden WOMEN VERSE WAL-MART Abstract Women nationwide have joined a class action lawsuit against Wal-Mart. The women are suing based on gender bias. They claim men are promoted faster and receive higher pay. This is especially noticed in the management ranks. The lawsuit could have been avoided with better training within the companyRead MoreWalmart and Its Associates Efficient Operator or Neglectful Employer1479 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSexual Discrimination 4 Dominance Policies 4 Unionisation 5 Wal-Mart: Past and new allegations 5 Conclusion 6 References 7 Introduction: Ethical Issues (Appendix A) Wal-Mart had been criticized for its worst CSR practices which includes low wages for the employees (Karen, 2004). Immoral activity of paying low for more and the overtime works had been held (Karen, 2004) .The quantitative records of designations in the company showed that Wal-Mart had sexual discrimination in its organizationRead MoreEssay about Case Analysis - Walmart Staffing1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCase Analysis: Staffing Wal-Mart Stores Wal-Mart has been ranked in the FortuneÃ¢â¬â¢s list of the top 100 companies to work for in the United States (Mark, 2003). Wal-Mart had increased their workforce from 1996 to 2001 by almost 50 percent, of which the percentage of women decreased from 67 percent to 64 percent during this time. Wal- Mart had used a hierarchical human resources (HR) structure that consisted of several levels of management, divisions, and regions. Ã¢â¬Å"In 2001, management employeesRead MoreSex Discrimination at Walmart Essay1132 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSex Discrimination at Wal-Mart OMM640 Business Ethics and Social Responsibility Dr.: David Britton May 14, 2012 Betty Dukes along with five other women filled a law suit against Wal-Mart Inc. in 2001 for discrimination against women, denying them their raises and also their promotions. Betty Dukes and the other women hope that they can stand for hundreds of thousands of other women who might have been similarly affected by this type of behavior when they wereRead MoreWal Mart1969 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages a. What are the functions of Wal-Mart for society? Wal-Mart is anÃ AmericanÃ multinational retail corporation and one of the leading discount department retail stores (Wikipedia).Ã It is the highest- grossing company in the United States (Fortune 2008a), and is by far one of the most successful companies worldwide. Wal-Mart offers a place to buy the majority of our goods under one roof like electronics, furniture, clothing, pharmacy, sports, food, books etc. Wal-Mart sells good at lower price thanRead MoreDiscrimination in the Workplace1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Why does discrimination occur at workplace? There are multiple explanation for the issue. It can be ranged from generational differences, lack of diversity training, absence of good behavior modeling, and many other reasons. In every workplace, it is consists of different cultural, religious, and social backgrounds. There are different perspectives and conversations that take place at the workplace. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s aspect on race, culture, sexual orientations, gender, and political views is disparateRead MoreWorking Like an Elephant Eating Like an Ant Essay1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespeople lives. In Up Against Wal-Mart, Karen Olsson describes unacceptable ways by which Wal-Mart treat their employee while Sebastian Mallaby in Ã¢â¬Å"Progressive Wal-Mart. ReallyÃ¢â¬ views same company as a savior to the poor and low income families. We can see the pro and con from both sides. Threatening employee from forming union, violation of the equal pay law, zero payment for overtime, paying below the minimum wage, rub Paul to pay Apollo. To see whether the Wal-Mart reaction against its employee
Zara maintains the flexibility necessary to design and produce over 12000 new items annually. Value drivers for Zara are both tangible and intangible in the benefits that are returned to all stakeholders. The successful implementation of ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s business model provides great value to stakeholders and differentiates their business from their peers. Three goals for operations: develop a system that requires short lead times, decrease quantities produced to decrease inventory risk, and increase the number of available styles and/or choice. Others: Zara has developed a business model based on short deadlines, decrease quantities and a great choice of style and clothes. The infrastructure: Zara only works with stores. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t make merchandising in internet. The company succeeds to make moderate prices with a large choice of new clothes every time. The success of ZARA is based on two principals: follow the trend to be able to sell garments at a moment where people want this kind of style, without using any advertisements as the concurrence does. We will write a custom essay sample on Zara Fast Fashion Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to convince people to buy their clothes but give the public what they desire at the moment. Secondly, the trust that had been given to employees allowed the company to delegate. They decide what clothes should be in stores, the designed the garments by pairs for a specific collection. Their role is to create clothes not to be sold for a long time but only for a short period in appropriateness with the current trend. The goal: of the firm is to convince the consumer to buy their clothes. Their bid: they propose and deliver all fashion style at the moment and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to make marketing for old or past fashion collections. The design and the organization of the stores are changed every four years behind the indications and orders of La Coruna in order to be creative and innovative all the time. Unique Supply Chain strategy: They have strategic agreements with local manufacturers that ensure timely delivery and service. Zara is a vertically integrated company that owns different levels of the supply chain. From manufacturing to warehouse to retail outlets, Zara owns all of these different entities. This allows Zara to globally optimize instead of locally. This type of centralized decision making reduces the bullwhip effect on the overall supply chain. Production costs (machinery and labor) are relatively high for ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain compared to their competitors. Another interesting aspect about ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain is Zara does not forecast the upcoming seasonÃ¢â¬â¢s products before production. Instead , their design team observes the fashion trends at that second and reacts to consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s taste. Information is also centralized allowing permeability amongst the different layers in the supply chain. In order for this model to work, the supply chain has very short lead times and Zara states that it is able to go from design to final product delivery in 14 days. 2. What kind of IT System they are using and what are the major Benefits? ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s information and communication protocols are significantly different from its competitors. Zara spends less than 0. 5% of total revenue on IT and IT employees account for only 0. 5% of ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s total workforce. This differs from their competitors who spend on average 2% of total revenue on IT expenditures and have 2. % of their total workforce devoted to IT. Zara utilizes human intelligence (from store managers and market research) and information technology (such as their PDA devices) in order to have a hybrid model for information flow from stores to headquarters. For example, managers at Zara stores use handheld devices to send standardized information regarding customer feedback and ordering needs directly to in-house designers. This not only keeps Zaras designers informed of fast-changing customer trends and demand, but also provides the company with insight on less-desirable merchandise. ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s unique approach of human intelligence assisted IT solutions results in well-managed inventories, linkages between demand and supply, and reduced costs from obsolete merchandise; Hence, the hybrid information and communication system that Zara uses provides cost advantages to ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and helps to abide by their fundamental principle to have the ability to rapidly respond to changes in consumer demand. 3. Can you suggest any improvement in their IT System and Networking? There is still room for improvement in their IT processes to realize more effective management of inventory levels.