Monday, January 28, 2019

Sociology and Coffee

Writing naming 1 cocoa bean is a beverage that is glob entirelyy earnd, besides withal a yield that has diametrical measures in different separate of the world. The division drinking chocolate plays in golf-club differs around the world, from the farmers who grew the crops to the people who incessantly consume them. Social theoretical perspectives are cap adapted of turn out uping the different roles coffee has in different societies. Symbolic interactionism, functionalism, and Marxism are three theories which show coffees role sociologically.These theories show how coffee affects people physically, how it affects them emotionally, how it air currents them to affirm interactions, how it connects different contributions of society, and how its economically controlled by a subscribe few. Symbolic interactionism is a sociable theoretical approach established by George Mead, which emphasizes the importance of symbols and language in considering the tender world. Thi s theoretical possibleness first allows us to derive the symbolic meanings coffee has on society. Coffee is often viewed as a beverage for energy.Its often inebriated in the morning for means of getting drive after superstar has woken from sleep, or during the day when one is having a tiresome day, or sometimes after the consumption of alcohol to sober up. All these symbols fucking be used to identify the nature of coffee consumption indoors society. These symbols can lead to the social interaction, which George Mead said, involved the exchange of symbols. People can understand a persons state of mind and mood when they check them drinking coffee, because coffee is capable of symbolizing certain moods.When people assimilate one another drinking coffee before conversing, in Meads theory, its the exchange of symbols, in this case how one is feeling at that moment. After understanding one another, the people then can go active talking in the manner in which they want to. Funct ionalism is another social theoretical approach which emphasizes the study of social activity as society functions as a whole. In the case of coffee, this involves the chain of events that take place, offset with the coffee as a form of a crop all the way to it reaching the consumer.This gives us a clear understanding of societys role in the production and consumption of the beverage, and the important role each one plays. Coffee is consumed around the world, but the wealthy nations consume far more(prenominal) than anyone else, even than the countries which start the coffee. Functionalism advocates moral consensus, which is the maintenance of equating within society. In the case of coffee though, the wealthy countries have solely forgotten about equality and often economically oppress the countries which produce the coffee.People within these wealthy countries simply demand their coffees and have forgotten about the lengthy process coffee takes to get to them. In the functiona lism of coffee, everyone plays an important part and its possible the disappearance of one group can lead to the collapse of the whole chain. Yet coffee has led to divisions being created as well as meshs arising, all repayable to the wealthy and powerful creating policies that only benefit them and their associates. Functionalists stress to people to understand everyones importance within society, and to oppose those who seek to create social ranks.Marxism is also another social theoretical approach which emphasizes political reform but basically leads to more conflict. Marxists are often open to these changes in policy for their own advantages, in order to get more for their respective groups. Coffee is a priceless product on the world market and is often an issue of conflict over who receives more. The wealthy countries, with their power and shared ideologies, are able to dominate this area of the market and retrieve more coffee for themselves.When these groups with extensiv e powers come together with similar values, they legitimize their hold on the product of coffee. Similar to how the colonial powers dictated the route of coffee, these powerful groups with similar ideologies, volition be able to control the market and decide if and how much coffee other countries will receive. This will cause rank division and in the end lead to class conflict among nations. The powerful groups actually prefer these conflicts though, because it enables them to show their strength and have a stronger say in the coffee market.The sociological nature of coffee consumption can be defined through three theoretical methods. The first is symbolic interactionism and involves the observation of coffee as a symbol within society. Coffee can be regarded as an energy beverage, since it allows consumers to go on when tired. The second is functionalism and involves the chain of events which lead coffee from the farms around the world to the consumer. Coffee goes through a lot o f travel to reach consumers around the world, but most are not advised of the long journey it experiences.The third is Marxism and involves the groups, mostly the wealthy, who are in prefer of changing policies to receive more coffee and dictate the market due to their wealth and similar ideals. The countries which produce the coffee as well as other poor countries which demand coffee are often laden financially by the wealthy that control all the influence in who receives the coffee. Coffee is no longer seen as a beverage but as a pile of money to the people who control its value on the market.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas

revere and loathe in Las Vegas Explain how characters inflection from headstrong and quirky in the rise to something that resembles shell-shocked s gray-hairediers Raul Duke and the Attorney to a fault known as the main characters of the novel Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas pitch contour from headstrong and quirky characters to something that appears to be shell-shocked soldiers. The American Dream, a very common theme for every American, everyone wants to live it exclusively few actually know what it is. Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas is the American Dream put in action as Hunter S.Thompson puts to the rivulet his standard practice of living in excess and acting fishily enough to evade detection, with the attitude of someone who belongs where he is. Hunter S. Thompson manages to seduce a journalistic discovery that outlines the changes of an American legend. The characters transitioning from headstrong and quirky in the beginning to something that resembles shell-shocked sol diers, these descriptions apply to both the characters, Raul Duke and his Samoan lawyer who is neer named, and the back up characters, hotel bellhops and other static characters. Old elephants limp off to the hills to die old Americans go out to the high way and drive themselves to death with immense cars(18). This shows a perfect blend of aggressive journalism gone crooked combined with great American willpower and ingenuity and is a corner in the world of counter civilization writing. At the beginning of the novel both Raul Duke and the attorney showed head strong and quirky qualities. As your attorney, thats how the attorney always presented himself in front of multitude shows a very cocksure and headstrong personality because he isnt afraid of showing who he is and it also represents how he loves his job since he always wanted to be referred as to the attorney. Another scene that shows both the attorney and Dr. Thompson upbeat personalities is their climb with the shar k to Las Vegas. Off course they were high throughout the whole drive. That is also a reason why they felt so headstrong because it is believed that medicines do them feel more powerful. We are going to rip his lungs out verbalize the attorney during the ride to Las Vegas. Also them getting the shark was one of the moments that got them so pumped up. Then there is a change in personality were both characters resemble shell-shocked soldiers. I believe these changes of transition originate from the drugs and their make and that provokes them to become bipolar. One of the scenes that show this transition is the Vietnam flash and the hotel scene eyepatch Dr. Thompson and the attorney are in the elevator and the attorney becomes overly aggressive.This transition happens after their usage of drugs and alcohol and it is influenced by Hunter S. Thompson and his persona. The influence of Dr. Thompsons novel he has had on American culture is almost countless. every(prenominal) American writer with any sense of politics and social righteousness reads and looks up to the good doctor. Fear and Loathing marks a bit point in his style. The strange and often twisted mindset of these people creates, for the average readers, what seems like an alternate reality, a world which they have never before witnessed.Duke and his attorney seem like characters in some unregenerate drama although they are in fact, actual people. This is the effect the sub culture that is the subject matter. The reader can identify with the ordinary people in the novel such as hitchhiker, these people do not scan the rhyme or reason of the actions taken by the end of the confine the reader, at least, has gleaned some sort of comprehension of this secret and sometimes excite world of drug people. You can turn your back on a person, but never turn your back on a drug especially when its waving a razor-sharp knife un your eyes. This transition from headstrong and quirky to shell-shocked soldiers a ll occurs from the use of drugs and its effects. Thus, Hunter S. Thompson created these characters and their personalities as a representation of himself even though they are realistic people.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Improvement of the International Trade Essay

Introduction formations atomic number 18 facing increased orbicular competition, stinting uncertainties, and changing merchandises. Technology is changing the bearing we conduct business and manage information. Outsourcing of goods and services enables companies to take advantage of degrade costs in atomic number 18as much(prenominal) as labor, energy, land and capital. By doing this, companies swear to dispirit their overall cost expression, improve receipts margins, and enhance ingathering quality, reli aptitude and distribution, thus allowing them to compete more effectively. Suppliers and trafficker partners may be located in the same city, region or country. But they atomic number 18 just as likely to be located halfway more or little the world, adding new challenges to business management.The growth of supra subject bea strategic partnerships has progressionn exponentially in the last twenty years. Competing in a spherical securities industry has made it change magnitudely important to align business strategies with a danger management strategy that includes strengthening world(prenominal) provide chains and v kiboshor partnerships. In the near future, it is supply chains that give compete, not companies. world-wide supply chains must be cargon repletey selected and monitored to ensure the militant edge required to achieve success in the global market send. Typically, the first order of business has been logistics and operations.1. Logistics moves the entire economyEconomic maturements in recent years realize led to the public of hard order networks and systems of goods flow in the process, the globalization of procurement, output and sales as easy as the division of labor pose increased. In addition, the complexity of world(prenominal) logistics systems in many domains has grown as a result of increase product variations and differentiation. Another factor is that many companies are concentrating on their marrow skills and are reducing their vertical integrating. The efficient management of the resulting global flows of goods has boosted both(prenominal) the business and frugal signifi shagce of logistics.Structure of Global avocation world(prenominal) stack, both in cost of value and tonnage, has been a festering effort in the global economy. It is important to underline when looking at the grammatical construction of global care that it is not nations that are trading, but mostly corporations with the end products mostly consumed by individuals. Inter and intra corporate shift is taking rest home crosswise national jurisdictions is accounted as international administer. The emergence of the current structure of global contend freighter in the first place be articulated deep down three major phases First phase (immobile factors of re shimmer). Concerns a conventional emplacement on international wad that prevailed until the 1970s where factors of production were much less mobile. Prior to the end of World War I, global merchandise was mainly structured by colonial relations. Particularly, there was a limited aim of mobility of raw materials, parts and finished products. After World War I international trade became fairly regulated with blockages such tariffs, quotas and limitations to unlike ownership. calling mainly concerned a range of specific products, namely commodities, (and precise hardly a(prenominal) services) that were not readily available in regional economies. payable to regulations, protectionism and fairly high rapture costs, trade remained limited and delayed by inefficient freight distribution. In this context, trade was more an exercise to escape with scarcity than to promote stinting efficiency. Second phase (mobility of factors of production). From the 1980s, the mobility of factors of production, particularly capital, became possible. The judicial and physical environment in which international trade was taking pl ace lead to a better realization of the comparative advantages of specific locations. Concomitantly, regional trade agreements emerged and the global trade framework was strengthened from a jural and transactional standpoint (GATT/WTO).In addition, containerization provided the capabilities to support more complex and long outgo trade flows, as did the growing air traffic. Due to high production (legacy) costs in old industrial regions, activities that were labor intensive were bit by bit relocated to disdain costs locations. The process began as a national one, then went to nearby countries when possible and afterwards became a truly global phenomenon. Thus, foreign direct coronations surged, particularly towards new manufacturing regions as multinational corporations became progressively flexible in the global positioning of their assets. Third phase (global production networks).There is a growth in international trade, now including a wide variety of services that were p reviously fixed to regional markets and a surge in the mobility of the factors of production. Since these trends are well established, the priority is now geological fault to the geographical and dish upal integration of production, distribution and consumption with the emergence of global production networks. Complex networks involving flows of information, commodities, parts and finished goods have been set, which in turn demands a high take aim of command of logistics and freight distribution. In such an environment, powerful actors have emerged which are not directly involved in the function of production and retailing, but mainly taking the responsibility of managing the clear of flows.The global economic system is thus characterized by a growing level of integrated services, finance, retail, manufacturing and nonetheless distribution, which in turn is mainly the offspring of improved send and logistics, a more efficient exploitation of regional comparative advantages and a transactional environment supportive of the legal and financial complexities of global trade.Trade FacilitationThe volume of exchanged goods and services surrounded by nations is taking a growing bundle of the generation of wealth, mainly by offering economic growth opportunities in new regions and by reducing the costs of a wide array of manufacturing goods. By 2007, international trade surpassed for the first sequence 50% of global GDP, a twofold increase in its share since 1950. The facilitation of trade involves how the procedures regulating the international movements of goods drop be improved. It depends on the decrease of the general costs of trade, which considers transaction, tariff, transport and time costs, often labeled as the Four Ts of international trade. United nations estimates have underlined that for developing countries a 10% reduction in transportation cost could be accompanied with a growth of about 20% in international and domestic trade.Thus, the abil ity to compete in a global economy is dependent on the transport system as well as a trade facilitation framework with activities including Distribution-based. A multimodal and intermodal freight transport system composed of modes, infrastructures and terminals that spans across the globe. It insures a physical capacity to support trade and its underlying supply chains. Regulation-based. Customs procedures, tariffs, regulations and handling of documentation.They insure that trade flows abide to the rules and regulations of the jurisdictions they cross. Cross-border clearance, particularly in developing countries, jakes be a notable trade impediment with border delays, bottlenecks and long customer clearance quantify. Transaction-based. Banking, finance, legal and insurance activities where accounts can be settled and risk mitigated. They insure that the sellers of goods and services are receiving an concur upon compensation and that the purchasers have a legal recourse if the outcome of the transaction is judged unsatisfactory or is insured if a partial or full loss incurs.The quality, cost, and efficiency of these services influence the trading environment as well as the overall costs linked with the international trade of goods. Many factors have been conductive to trade facilitation in recent decades, including integration processes, standardization, production systems, transport efficiency and transactional efficiency Integration processes, such as the emergence of economic blocks and the decrease of tariffs at a global casing through agreements, promoted trade as regulatory regimes were harmonized. One straightforward heartbeat of integration relates to custom delays, which can be a remarkable trade impediment since it adds uncertainty in supply chain management. The higher the level of economic integration, the more likely the concerned elements are to trade. International trade has consequently been facilitated by a set of factors linked with growing levels of economic integration, the outcome of processes such as the European Union or the northerly American Free Trade Agreement.The transactional capacity is consequently facilitated with the development of transportation networks and the adjustment of trade flows that follows increased integration. Integration processes have also taken place at the local scale with the creation of free trade zones where an area is given a different governance structure in order to promote trade, particularly export oriented activities. In this case, the integration process is not uniform as only a circle of a territory is involved. China is a salient lawsuit of the far-reaching impacts of the vista of special economic zones operating under a different regulatory regime. Standardization concerns the setting of a common and ubiquitous frame of belief rating over information and physical flows. Standards facilitate trade since those abiding by them benefit from reliable, interoperab le and compatible goods and services which often results in lower production, distribution and maintenance costs.Measurement units were among the first globally accepted standards (metric system) and the development of information technologies eventually led to common operating and telecommunication systems. It is that the container that is considered to be the most significant international standard for trade facilitation. By offering a load unit that can be handled by any mode and terminal with the proper equipment, access to international trade is improved. Production systems are more flexible and embedded. It is effectively productive to celebrate a network of geographically diversified inputs, which favors exchanges of commodities, parts and services. Information technologies have dictationed a role by facilitating transactions and the management of complex business operations. Foreign direct investments are commonly linked with the globalization of production as corporatio ns invest abroad in search of lower production costs and new markets.China is a leading example of such a process, which went on par with a growing accessibility of goods and services that can be traded on the global market. Transport efficiency has increased significantly because of innovations and improvements in the modes and infrastructures in terms of their capacity and throughput. Ports are particularly important in such a context since they are gateways to international trade through maritime shipping networks. As a result, the transferability of commodities, parts and finished goods has improved. Decreasing transport costs does more than increase trade it can also help change the location of economic activities. Yet, transborder transportation issues remain to be better addressed in terms of capacity, efficiency and security. Transactional efficiency. The financial sector also played a significant role in integrating global trade, namely by providing investment capital and credit for international commercial transactions. For instance, a letter of credit may be issued based upon an export contract. An exporter can thus overhear a payment guarantee from a bank until its customer finalizes the transaction upon delivery. This is particularly important since the delivery of international trade transactions can take several weeks due to the long distances involved. During the transfer, it is also common that the commitment is insured in the event of damage, theft or delays, a function supported by insurance companies. Also, global financial systems permit to alter currencies according to exchange rates that are commonly set by market forces, while some currencies, such as the Chinese Yuan, are set by policy. Monetary policy can thus be a tool, albeit contentious, used to influence trade.The close relationship between international economic growth and logisticsMobility is a critical condition for gains to be achieved in productivity, growth and applyme nt in a macroeconomic context. The connection between economic growth and demand for product-transporting services is the result of various set up. These effects can clearly show the growing significance of the economic sector of goods distribution1 The effect of goods volumeFor a long time, it was put on that in highly developed economies fewer and fewer quantities of goods were produced for the macrologistics system and that the transport volume rose at a slower pace than the economy. Today, it can be assumed that the development actually goes in the opposite teaching as a result of the increasing inter-company division of labor created by intensified outsourcing in some highly developed countries. Transport loudness that is, transport performance per production quantity unit increases for many types of goods. psyche parts or components of a product are transported numerous times during various stages of the value chain, e.g., transports between plants.2 The effect of goods structureIn highly developed economies, the number of high-quality consumer and production goods rises. The share of mass goods, on the other hand, stagnates or even falls. The distribution of goods then shifts to high-quality products that must be shipped quickly. Because of the relatively low costs, road transports Road transport generally benefit. Railroads and inland water transports generally suffer because of their low speed.3 The effect of logisticsLogistics systems invariably undergo optimization. Supply chain management Supply chain management, production-synchronization deliveries that employ just-in-time Just-in-time concepts, the forgoing of storage and global outsourcing are just a few examples of this. But the application of modern logistics concepts affects the economic sector of goods distribution. This is because the new logistics management of industrial and trade companies has altered the demands placed on the goods-distribution system. Road transports can reac t relatively flexibly and well to these demands. Railroads and inland water transports have a difficult time making this switch. At the same time, air-freight transports profit from time-critical shipments.4 The effect of integrationThe creation of large economic regions gives rise to international, cross-border logistics systems. For instance, the European Union and regulations from the World Trade Organization World Trade Organization (WTO) have propelled globalization Globalization in the goods-distribution sector. As economic regions spread, cross-border trade expands and the distances that must be covered by logistics systems lengthen. The effect of integration describes the increasing demands placed on the economic sector of goods distribution that are arising from the creation of larger economic regions and cross-border logistics systems.ConclusionIn all likelihood, globalization forget continue and intensify. Trade is critical to economic growth and to global development. T rade facilitation has been pointed out as the lowest-hanging fruit in this detect. It has also been argued that logistics services play an important role in agreeing entrepreneurs in poor countries with foreign customers, whether these are retailers or downstream manufacturers. In particular, as the traditional wholesalers are increasingly being bypassed in modern supply chains, developing countries gather up to ensure that their entrepreneurs have access to modern intermediaries that can help match local suppliers with foreign buyers and with ensuring that products meet quality as well as time reliability requirements.The future growth of world trade will not be evenly spread, any more than world trade has ever been evenly spread in any period in world history. Individual countries are in very different positions with respect to their ability to benefit from world trade. Part of that is luck having a coast, and cryptical neighbors help. But part of it is skill. Countries that are open to world trade, that create the infrastructure, and preceding(prenominal) all the right attitude, will be best placed to brave out the current hiatus more successfully, and to prosper in the years ahead.Referenceshttp//www.dhl-discoverlogistics.com/cms/en/course/trends/macroeconomics.jsphttp//www.na-businesspress.com/Wisma.pdfhttp//people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch5en/conc5en/ch5c2en.htmlhttp//www.unece.org.unecedev.colo.iway.ch/fileadmin/DAM/trade/agr/meetings/ge.01/document.r/wppdf.pdf

Friday, January 25, 2019

Case: Walter Hundhausen Gmbh

Size up Germanys metalworks Industry? Is WH puff up sited in it straight off- account and in the rising?The beginning of the sore millennium has presented Walter Hundhausen (WH) with a big hurdle to jump. The German miserliness is experiencing eco no.ic stagnation, an aging population and a German drive market that is filled with many intrusive g oernment regulations. The German economy has been festering at an ordinary rate of 0.6 percent per social class for the ut close 4 years making it maven of the s crushedest growing economies in the Euro Zone.However, studys bespeaks in 2004, the domestic economy is expected to grow above 2 percent. Moreover, one-third of Germanys economy is comprised of exports. In per exerciseing a Pest Analysis (see p survey 1 below), at that place atomic fargon 18 many macro factors affecting the German Foundry Industry.MACRO FORCESThe acronym stands for Political, Economic, Social and technological concerns that could affect the stra tegic development of the hurl metalworks application in Germany. By identifying PEST influences it helps gage the outer env entreatment in which the b effect foundry exertion operates. PoliticalStrict Layoff Regulations Government regulations had strict policies in built in bed on how giving medications could layoff employees. Before employees were laid-off, heed had to advise the working Council and they had to agree to the nature and measure of the externalise. In addition, the steering team had to develop a accessible purpose for each employee on how the layoff would affect them and what remedies the organization would put in place for them. If asocial plan was non presented, employees could claim for compensation finished the courts. This could prove to be followly in time, money and reputation.National Bargaining on Wages The current German industrial relations policy was ground on a duel model. One part finaglet with the collective negociate, musical c omposition the different dealt with code conditioninalination. The collective bargaining agreement dealt with minimums and maximums, with respect to wages and salaries and operative hours. Codetermination was an authentic Act or Law that provided labourers in Germany with ternion levels of federal agency Supervisory Board, kit and boodle Council and Labour conductor. However, in the end, all collective bargaining agreements could be adjusted and then ratified through this exploit.Social Market rendery The political climate in the country is based on the social market economy, where employers and unions worked as partners to better the organization as a whole. However, in reality, the residual of power lay in the hands of the union. Unions accomplishd national and regional wages and hours of operations in addition, they as well as negotiated paid time-off. In 2004, the bonnie individual worked 1,542 hours. The standard legislated work week was unbending at 60 hours wi th a minimum paid leave of 24 days. That translates to 2,832 hours per year. Despite the legislation, the average individual worked 54 percent less than was legislated in 2004.Ordnung Principal This is Germanys version of the Triple Bottom Line, where economy, society and the government all accede in the mechanism for workers democracy. New Environmental Legislation The government obligate a new ecological tax in 2000 that focused on drop reduction as opposed to waste recycling. This added be in the form of time and money to the WH plaster bandage dish. From an frugal perspective, the government wanted the application to focus on the externalities and turn out them or remove them totally.EconomicalDomestic appendage The last three years (2001 to 2004), the German economy was growing at an average rate of 0.6 percent per year. Germany had been experiencing the slowest growth in the Euro zone. This touch many organizations in Germany, peculiar(a)ly mid-sized companies tha t were not big enough to fully utilize economies of scale. Future Growth The economy in Germany has been slated to grow well-nigh 2 percent for the year 2004.This represent an summation of 1.4 percent over the previous year and that may notseem big, but comparatively speaking that is a 233% mixture magnitudes from year over year. Increase in appreciate of the Euro Another concern at the macro level is the appreciation of the Euro against other currencies, most notably the Amerifanny dollar. As the Euro step-upd, the constitute of WHs harvest-tides to a fault increased. However, the opportunity to purchase at a lower impairment fleck iron and nerve from non-European countries has also increased. As the Euro appreciates in value, it gage now purchase novel materials at a lower cost.SocialAging Population The current labour shortage in Germany is creating a nightm atomic number 18 in the cast persistence. In order to attract and retain employees, organizations were man ufactureing a adeninelitude over scheduled tariffs. These be were substantial, as many companies were running quintuple shifts in order to keep up with demand. Reduction in full-time Employment The current macro environment suggests a reduction in the number of full-time resources, because of the mellowed labour be. However, because of the aging population, its meet increasely unwieldy to find qualified workers.Sounds counter intuitive a reduction of full-time staff to cut be, but many companies in the industry atomic number 18 paying premiums over scheduled tariffs in order to keep their current work force. Strong Social Employment Contracts The Germany foundry industry has a gruelling employment contract system, where employers are responsible for the well being of their workers. The contract is enforced by the Works Council and the Labour Director who is part of the origination. Their main objective is to resolve disputes through intensive free contacts.Strong Union P resence The dual model in the industry consists of a collective bargaining agreement and codetermination. This dual system gives the unions a strong position within the foundry industry. Their presence has lead to numerous bouts of appointment with management when negotiating collective agreements and in or so cases these disagreements lead to pertinacious and bitingly strikes.TechnicalAbove Average R&D Investment R&D is a major competent in the casting foundry industry. R&D creates better products and above all expurgates costs through the automation of the casting physical process. Moreover, by being a grad 1 supplier, clients are expecting better products and lower costs year overyear. Frequent Technology Changes In the casting process, technology changes occur frequently, in order to maintain lower sand-to-metal ratios and silicon chip ratios. Largest European Foundry existence the largest casting foundry in Europe, economies of scale can wee-wee satisfying cost savings, as the organization can purchase large amounts of chalk iron and steel.Close Proximity to Clients By being close to customers, shipping costs and delivery times are reduced substantially giving the topical anesthetic casting foundry a cost advantage over their enormous distance competitors. Efficient Sand Casting Process The casting process is highly integrated and labour intensive. By having a disjointed process, the cost of the process pull up stakes be high and the products produced would be of an inferior quality. A process that is tightly controlled and modify depart reduce un requirement waste and cut costs in the form of wages and naked as a jaybird material.MICRO FORCESBelow are the specific micro forces that depart influence how WH reacts to the environmental issues assessed above.SupplyThe cost of lovesome materials was increasing 23 percent year over year (see plat 2 below). Raw materials consent been the single most expensive cost to WH. Diagram 3 below, illustrates the cost of raw materials to revenues and the cost of wages and salaries to revenues. As for wages and salaries, they redeem been holding steady. Moreover, the dilute seems to be mintward one-sided (see Diagram 3, below).Total revenues choose been increasing steadily since 2001 with a significant increase occurring in 2004 (see Diagram 4, below).Year over Year Increase in Revenues2001 2002 2003 2004Total Revenues 97 99 103 1172.06% 4.04% 13.59%However, in 2004, the index price of turn iron and steel has been averaging slightly 191.00, that is a 43 percent increase, year over year. The trend seems to be foremaning higher, potentially breaking the 250.00 barrier (see Diagram 5, below).Average 81.25 99.91667 99.91667 111.5 133.75 191.25CompetitionCompetition from non-OEM organizations was growing. However, customers instantly are to a greater extent sophisticated and understand that quality plays an important persona in the decision to purchase a product v ersus purchasing a product on price alone. The real flagellum get out diminish from organizations in the casting industry from Eastern European that will ultimately become tier 1 suppliers. One of the challenges facing WH is the current workforce in Germany. WH has been experiencing a high degree of absence due to leaves and purify days.The above graph (see Diagram 6) illustrates by department where the greatest number of absences are occurring. The stars indicate the average per department and in 2004, there was an increase in the number of absences in Core market, finis and Heat Treatment. Finishing can be explained because of the nature of the work itself. It is one of the most vexedparts of the casting process. Some of the other not equal to(p) information to mention, is when the automated casting process is operating efficiently, sick days and leaves are unbroken to a minimum.For example, pouring and melting in 2003 experienced numerous mechanic problems, thereof the department experienced a higher level of absences as opposed to 2004, when the process was operating with subatomic interruptions, sick days and leaves decrease substantially. Moreover, for the first 6 months of 2004, the average cost of the total days off work amounted to 3.39 million, which represents 8.7 percent of the overall fraternitys revenues (see Diagram 7, below).DemandThe biggest threat facing WH is their ability to reduce costs. Their customers are demanding lower prices and the organization has been responding, by investing heavily in R&D to meliorate the casting process. However, if they do not get the costs of the casting process under control, they will not be able to meet the increasing demand from the motor fomite industry. The motor vehicle industry in 2004 purchased a total of 68% of the total industrys output. Diagram 8, below illustrates the percentage increase or decrease year over year by industry and the tonnage duty sold by industry. Clearly, the industry that has been adding value to WH has been the motor vehicle industry. On average, over the last three years, the motor vehicle industry has increased 13 percent.If the motor vehicle industry continues on their current growth path, by the end of 2005, WH will have reached plant capacity of 95,000 tonnes per year (see Diagram 9, below). The forecast includes a 13 percent increase in motor vehicle tonnage per year and holds the other two industries with no growth or rectify in tonnes required.PEST ConclusionThe rising cost of scrap iron and steel, a slug Germany economy, the German labour market and its regulations are proving extremely difficult for WH to deal with. In addition, WH is reaching plant capacity and they have not been able to control rising costs to date. For the last three years, wages and raw material purchases have been well over budget. SWOT ANALYSISA SWOT psychoanalysis was completed for WH to evaluate their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threa ts (see Diagram 10, below). The analysis identifies the key internal and external factors that will hinder or help WH achieve their stated goals and objectives.One of the key factors to WH conquest was their ability to understand their customers business require and create new products for them. This was one area in the casting foundry industry that separated WH from their competitors WH was and still is Best in Class, when it comes to product innovation. One area of improvement would be to eliminate or reduce the number of products that have low margins.By producing these low margin products, WH is tying up valuable resources both(prenominal) in time, money and material. One of the greatest threats WH will encounter is the surging casting foundries from Eastern European countries, such(prenominal) as Spain, Turkey and Poland. Currently, many of the Eastern European organizations either small or big are not OEM rated. However, with time and additional investment dollars, these or ganizations will be able to compete against WH on price.PORTERS FIVE FORCESOne final sagacity was completed to pay back the profitability or attractiveness of the casting foundry industry in Germany. By utilizing Porters Five Force model, a more realistic assessment of the competitive rivalry that exists in the market can be determined. This will give WH insight as to the attractiveness of the industry and determine what course of action (if any) is required.The analysis clearly demonstrated that the industry is highly economic (see Diagram 11, above). The Barriers to Entry are high, making it difficult for organizations to enter. Entry requires a high initial capital investment and ongoing R&D dollars. Moreover, the bargaining power of the Buyer is Low, because electrical switch costs are high. Substitutes products are available, but in the motor vehicle industry highly unlikely to be used.Thebargaining power of Suppliers is strong, because there is strong union presence and the raw material is based on world supply and demand prices. In short, the competitive rivalry within the Casting Foundry Industry is high, suggesting that the industry is profitable. Furthermore, with high exist barriers, because of the high fixed costs, it makes it extremely difficult to exit the industry, and thus remaining organizations will continue to suffer and lose more market share.Question 1AIs WH well positioned in it now and in the future?Not with their current casting process. Clearly, WHs core competency lies in their ability to produce exactly what the customer necessarily and then takes that knowledge one maltreat further by producing new products that customers ends up wanting WH creates demand for their new more profitable products. Moreover, WH links their internal logistical and informational systems with their customers. Basically, WH becomes an extension of their customers. The future for WH would be to source some non core activities of their value chain to 3rd parties in the casting foundry industry perhaps in Eastern Europe, such as Poland, where wages are less and employment is more bountiful.In conclusion, with the current trends in the casting foundry industry, where growth is expected to increase 2% per year in tonnage and 3% per year in value, WH does not have the current structure to capitalize on this growth opportunity. Pricing has also become an issue and they are trying to go head to head with their customers and asking them to pick up the additional surcharges on the price of scrap steel and iron. Moreover, with the additional investment in R&D, costs have not decreased. Revenues have been steadily rising, but so have costs and costs have outpaced revenues. This is evident, as WH is expected to lose 6 million in 2004, making it the worst loss in the companys 4 year history.Question 2Is the resource that WHs management called strategic change really strategic? Justify you answer.In order to explain the answer, one mo ldinessiness first define what strategic change is. harmonise to Joseph N. Fry, one of the authors of strategic Analysisand Action he suggests that it is a rooster for building, communicating and maintain the direction of the business. As for Lawrence G. Hrebiniak, he suggests that strategic change is all about execution. In his book, Making Strategy Work, he suggested that without a careful, planned approach to execution, strategic goals cannot be attained.Albeit, in both examples above, little reference is made to the actual strategy, but in reality both authors agree that the strategy is important, but the execution of the strategy is key to achiever. An affinity that can be used to illustrate their point of view would be a golfer that needs to fade a shot around a tree. The strategy has been set, the trajectory of ball flight has been visualized envelop and all other factors have been taken into reflexion. Whats left is the actual striking of the ball. However, if the gol fers core competency is to hit a draw, rather than a fade, the strategy has little to do with the result of the execution.One of WH alternative is to shut down Line 2, reduce employment by 114 workers and increase sales through a radical merchandising campaign that started in 2003. However, the radical marketing campaign emphasizes a differentiation strategy as opposed to a price strategy as indicated by Klaas. The key to their current success is WHs ability to understand their customers business needs and create specific casting moulds for them. In addition, WH has been able to develop new products with higher margins for their customers and then sell those products back to their customers push marketing.By adopting a low cost strategy, rivals in the industry will eventually out price WH and take market share away from them. One of the reasons why WH can be out priced in the market is that their main competitors from Eastern Europe, such as Poland, have a much lower wage structure s. To conclude, WHs alternative does not fit the traditional definition of a strategic change. After reviewing the data and the definition, the answer remains a resolute no. The reason for the decision is that strategic change must take into consideration other aspects of the organization.The changes suggested by Klaas will not delivery the strategy in a controlled manner that is efficient and effective to implement. Strategic management is not about delivering one single project or addressing one particular issue, but a process that governs the entire organization and how the entireorganization is affected by the strategic change (see Diagram 12, above). The so called alternative strategic change in the end will not deliver any real value to the organization, thus further suggesting that this is not a strategic change. Strategic change at the end of the day must deliver real value, not perceived value.In Germany that value takes on the form of a stakeholder, rather than a sharehold er. Thus, by just now focusing on profits and ignoring the human costs of the layoffs, WH will not execute this strategy with any conviction or success. Both Fry and Hrebiniak realize that the process is complicated and contains many moving parts. In short, there is no prank bullet. Simply cutting workers and installing automated processes does not guarantee costs reductions and increased revenues.Question 3How much tractability did the company have in dealing with its problem?The reality of the situation is that WH only had perceived tractableness. With economic stagnation, an aging population, tight employment regulations and a shortage of workers, WH has limited flexibility in being able to deal with the problem. Moreover, with the increase in tariffs, raw materials and energy, WH has even less flexibility in addressing their current problem. WH was able to negotiate concessions with the Works Council however, the concessions came with a hefty price. The Works Councils goal w as to scavenge jobs in the short term for the promise of better pay in the long term. Thus, WH was able to negotiate special agreements to break the current collective agreement.WH negotiated for more free hours, less pay and forgone holidays and vacation pay, but had no control over dismissals and working exemptions the Works Council held the balance of power in these two categories. For example, if employment dropped below 570 permanent employees, the regional tariff rates would come into effect and they did. The Works Councils position for long term better pay may present a problem with a few of the alternatives being suggested by WH.The Works Council may not approve any of the alternatives that involve significant layoffs and pay reductions. These alternatives are in direct conflict with their own goals and objectives. In conclusion, perceived flexibility is much different than actual flexibility. WH may think they can suggest an alternative thatmakes sand for them, but the re ality is that without get in from the Works Council, the strategy will surely fail to execute.Question 4What could management do to address the problem?WH management must develop a Strategic Management Process. The new strategic management process is to be undertaken by the executives at WH and GMH. The executives will review and interpret the Germany foundry industry and determine the direction for WH. At this point in the process the executives will set the merged Strategy (strategic direction) and priorities, while understanding and taking into consideration resources and budget constraints (see diagram 13, below).The seconds tempo is to create the right Corporate Structure with the square-toed incentives and controls to ensure that the Corporate Strategy can be achieved. The final step is to ensure that the Business Units understand the objectives set forth and have the necessary resources in place to achieve their goals and objectives. It is the business unit who is respons ible for ensuring that they have the correct skills and capabilities in place in order to achieve the Corporate Strategy. Once the strategic management process has been developed, the next critical step in the process is to formulate a well defined plan that has clear and focused goals and objectives. These goals and objectives must be measurable, attainable and realistic.Moreover, the plan must address how these achievements will affect the overall organization, but more importantly, if the goals and objectives are not meet, what are consequences to the organization. This process must be open and vapourific that will ensure that buy in will occur quickly. In conclusion, the execution of these key activities is the heart of any successful strategic management process. In addition, WH must ensure that the Works Council understands that the long term success of WH is in everyones best interest. The Works Councils long term goal is for better pay for its workers, without WH, their goa ls and objectives will never be realized.Question 5What had management done so far?Management has accomplished a lot to date. They sold WH to GMH who had experience in purchasing distressed companies and providing them with fair equity and motivating their work force. In addition, in 2003, WH implemented a radical marketing plan that increased revenues by approximately 13.6 % in 2004. WH invested heavily in operations, by trying to automate the sand casting process. WH believed that they could further reduce the operating costs by automating a lot of the high touch processes.WH has also outsourced the finishing process, as this is one of the most costly processes in the sand casting process. WH hired a advisor by the name of Knight Wendling who was hired to improve productivity and reduce costs. His first mandate was to get customer to pay a scrap surcharge and eliminate unprofitable products. By the middle of 2004, 91 percent of customers were paying the surcharge and he eliminate d 5,000 tonnes of products that were generating low contributions. Finally, in 2004 WH made some major changes to their current management structure and sent out a new message to their workers, that management was looking for fresh ideas that would make a difference.Question 6What actions were left open to WHs management and would they make sense?One action that was left open was continuing with the Radical Marketing Plan that WH started in 2003. The marketing plan would continue to increase sales by 8.2 million and contribution by 5.2 million in 2005. However, one of the major issues with this action was that costs were also increasing and the increase in revenues and contributions was being offset by the rising cost of scrap iron and steel and wages. The rising costs, coupled with WHs increase in prices were source the doors to some of their direct competitors in Eastern Europe, such as Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic.This plan would only make sense if they could get the W orks Council to increase the number of hours that employees could work and reduce the minimum number of workers required, earlier tariffs are enforced. Moreover, this approach would make sense, if WH could convince the Works Council that their short term objective to keep as many employees aspossible is rattling going to hurt their long term goal of better pay for their workers. If WH and the Works Council could overlook their short term objectives and focus on their long term objectives, everyone would be better off.Question 7How could it pursue the remaining actions?WH could simply divest the entire operations and payout the 15.3 million owed to the workers ( 25,000 * 612 workers). However, this may not be in the best interest of the entire organization as an environmental assessment must be completed before the land gets rezoned. trounce case scenario, if the land is contaminated the purchaser may request that the seller clean the land before title change and this could cost G MH broad money.The opportunity cost of closing down the plant would be the 15.3 million, thus the company could take that money and reinvest it into WH. Currently, WH is losing 6.2 million per year, if they continue losing this amount of money, that would buy them 3 additional years and then WH could simply sell the business. WH would have to create a strategic plan that takes into consideration all the options associated with investing additional capital. More so, they will need buy in from the Works Council. Without their buy in strategic plans will prove useless.

Dbq Reconstruction After Civil War, Political and Social Essay

As the American Civil War came to a bloody end with the Federal side conquering, it was evident the fresh rejoined Unites States was in ruins economically, as well as socially and semipolitically. Beginning in 1865, this initiated the beginning of the reconstructive memory era with the mean of rebuilding and reestablishing America. Among the American people were the newly freed African Americans whom who were dumped into society a great deal destitute, unaided, and unknowing. Although the north had won and blacks were given freedom, they until now had fight to exercise their newly given rights. While Reconstruction was meant to recreate, reform, and restore America into a successful, united country while integrating latterly liberated African Americans into society, the validation of political and social change to equalize blacks unfortunately did not generate about until after the demise of the nineteenth century.Although finally given original rights, civilian liberties and privileges in addition to legally being regarded as a citizen of the United States, African Americans still had to struggle for their acceptance and entitlement in political American. Anti-black violence customarily was used to scare and prohibit blacks to play a part in politics. Although legally given the right to vote (Document C) as well as having Enforcement Acts passed protecting the politics of African Americans and more fiercely prohibiting extremist groups and acting racists, blacks were still hesitant in exercising this liberty. Southerners, Democrats and new(prenominal) opposing individuals thought that through brutality and intolerance, they could keep their political indicant while possibly eliminating the Republican Party, their adversary faction.One extremist ecesis that originated on ideas including white supremacy and white nationalism was the KKK, formally cognize as the Ku Klux Klan. Through violent acts and terrorism, this hate group showed their opposit ion on non-white individuals, although primarily recently liberated African Americans. Other forces acting against blacks were the Jim exuberate Laws, although generally enforced in the southern states, which outlawed blacks from putting their recently obtained rights and liberties into practice (Document H).In addition to these laws, regulations, dubbed Black Codes, were passed by the South for the mend purpose of limiting the freedom of former slaves. Although legalized as citizens and given the civil and constitutional rights, liberties and privileges as any other civilian (Document B), African Americans still had to fight to utilize and employ them. The Reconstruction era was intended to engender about political changes to society for the benefit of integrating African Americans, alas, Reconstruction would pass before favorable changes were achieved.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Management and corporate social responsibility Essay

merged kindly certificate of indebtedness is a signifi cornerstonet issue in the current ancestry environment. There is now a important slip-up in argumentation organisationes to beat recognized as existence lovingly creditworthy whilst achieving the unproblematic art objective of lolly maximization. Business now try particularly to reach the triple bottom line as a key objective as it in unifieds people planet and value objectives.Corporate friendly certificate of indebtedness is much difficult to define, as on that point ar many different definitions and understandings amongst academics and professionals. However corporeal affectionate indebtedness can broadly be defined as a hornswogglecept whereby companies integrate complaisant and environmental concerns in their vocation operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis (Falkenberg and Bruns? l 2012). The relationship in the midst of affablely accountable business ac tions and profit maximization is generally confused and controversial.Generally the view is that in order for a business to sign complaisantly responsible for(p) practices there is often increase pecuniary and non- pecuniary be in order to ensure this and then leading to decreased scratch in the short term. However it is also evident that socially responsible business actions and strong relationships with business stakeholders may lead to world-shaking long profit maximization. Corporate social office is now an essential ingredient at bottom business management.A firms bodily social debt instrument must be evident throughout all its business functions, in which the ethics and values of the business must align to concern all stakeholder expectations. Including social, environmental and ethical factors of business. In the expression Is harm diminution profitable? An analytical framework for in incarnated social right base on an epidemic model of addictive consu mption (Massin 2012) the in incorporate social function of firms in the industry of addictive substances, most noteworthy, gambling, cigarettes, and alcohol.There is a significant paradox in relation to producers within these industries and their socially responsible claims. These firms claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified and harmful (Massin 2012). The paper generally focuses on the substances of alcohol, cigarettes and gambling, as it is these products whose consumption shares the dual characteristic of being at run a risk of leading the users to gradually lose control over their consumption and of generating health and social damage. (Massin 2012) thus highlighting the contradiction of the producers claims of being socially responsible whilst selling these highly addictive products. Within the industries of addictive goods firms cannot be completely socially responsible, as this would involve the removal of these products from the mark et. and so highlighting the inability for producers of addictive products to achieve corporate social responsibility. indeed illustrating the inability of firms in these industries to be socially responsible whilst still achieving the primary business finishing of profit maximization.Corporate social responsibility involves business firms aligning their values with those of their stakeholders. There are many significant stakeholders of business, including shareholders, managers, employees and hostelry. another(prenominal) significant business stakeholder is that of the environment. A socially responsible business is viewed to cast off gift and accountable business actions base on respect for the community, society and the broader environment, and not just legal regulations.This therefore means a socially responsible business ensures it takes into account environmental stability and sustainability. In the oblige Environmental corporate social responsibility and financial perf ormance disentangling take aim and indirect effects (Loiui, Sharma 2012) the link between environmental social responsibility and financial performance has been established. The increasing environmental awareness has lead to increased firm research and development and hence has established new technologies and doing processes (Loiui, Sharma 2012).This increases research and development and implementation of new technologies and production processes generally leads to significant short-term business cost in the implementation and change within the business. However, the implementation of socially responsible business behavior leading to environmental sustainability creates significant long-term profit opportunities through increased waste reducing, move business consumption and also increase tarnish image in the eyes of consumers.This linkage between socially responsible business actions, involving environmentally friendly processes and the ability to maximize profit highlights the ability for firms to uphold socially responsible business actions whilst also being able to achieve financial objectives and profit maximization. Corporate social responsibility is viewed as an essential business function in todays business environment. However, corporate social responsibility is widely viewed as a violation of a businesses financial performance and the opportunity for business profit maximization.Corporate social responsibility is seen to have many dis favours that hinder and impede the fundamental business coating of profitability. This concept is further explored in the paper the casual effect of corporate governance on corporate social responsibility (Maretno and Harjoto 2012). In which it is highlighted that there are three alternatives to the relationship between corporate social responsibility and a firms corporate financial performance.These three theories let on the variable relationships between socially responsible business actions and financial per formance. unmatched of the alternatives illustrates the constraint corporate social responsibility imposes on the primary business goals of profitability. It is stated that socially responsible business actions are viewed as high-priced activities and a waste of scarce resources, and therefore have an adverse restore on firm value (Maretno and Harjoto 2012). Corporate social responsibility is often viewed as a costly procedure for businesses to undertake.However, this cost of corporate social responsibility is not only financial but also involves costs associated with time, resources and labour, furthermore contributing to the overall financial inefficiency and disadvantages associated with corporate social responsibility. The prevent financial and non financial costs of the implementation of corporate social responsibility create significant hindrances to a businesses ability to maximize profits and thus, highlights the encumbrance in relation to being socially responsible whi lst also substantive the primary business goal of profit maximization.Although corporate social responsibility is seen to violate profits, it is also believed that firms that conduct socially responsible business actions may reap financial gain and profit maximization. A companys business action in relation to corporate social responsibility generally has significant influence on the attitudes of non-investing stakeholders and the general society. In the article the casual effect of corporate governance oncorporate social responsibility (Maretno and Harjoto 2012) Maretno and Harjoto explain CSR as a conflict resolution system, in which corporate social responsibility is used as a conflict resolution tool between the firm and theyre non-investing stakeholders (Maretno and Harjoto 2012). Soanas paper the relationship between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance in the banking sector (Soana 2011) further more identifies the unequivocal link between both c orporate social responsibility and financial performance and profitability.Corporate social responsibility is seen to give firms competitive advantage and may also be seen as a safeguard of corporate reputation(Soana 2011). The use of corporate social responsibility as a conflict resolution tool and a safeguard for unpredictability creates significant opportunity for strong financial performance within the firm, due to its creative activity of several strategic advantages for business, such as the enhanced and harmonious business environments as well as enhanced public image and great brand value.These factors greatly contribute to the financial performance of the firm and thus if corporate social responsibility is achieved there are significant opportunities for profit maximization. Therefore illustrating the ability of firms to uphold socially responsible actions and corporate social responsibility, whilst still retaining the ability to achieve the primary business goal of profi t maximization. Corporate social responsibility has a paramount influence on businesses in the current business environment.Corporate social responsibility consists of open and accountable business actions in order to align the firms values with those of their stakeholders. Businesses are now becoming more concerned with the demands of corporate social responsibility, whilst still trying to achieve the fundamental business goal of profit maximization. There is many challenges associated whilst trying to achieve the business objectives of corporate social responsibility and profit maximization simultaneously.Corporate social responsibility generally is associated with increased business costs, including those of time, misuse of resources and monetary costs. However, it has also become evident that socially responsible business actions may lead to long-term financial gains for business as well as greater stakeholder reputation, brand perception and efficiency, ultimately leading to th e maximization of business profits. References Falkenberg, J. and Brunsael, P.(2012) corporate social responsibility a strategic advantage or a strategic necessity?. Journal of business ethics, 99 p. 9-16. Accessed 24th April 2013. Lioui, A. and Sharma, Z. (2012) Environmental corporate social responsibility and financial performance Disentangling direct and indirect effects. bionomic economics, 78 p. 100-111. Accessed 24th April 2013. Maretno, H. and Harjoto, A. (2012) The casual effect of corporate governance con corporate social responsibility.Journal of Business ethics, 106 p. 53-72. Accessed 20th April 2013. Massin, S. (2012) Is harm reduction profitable? an analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption. Social Science and medicine, 74 p. 1856-1863. Accessed 24th april 2013. Soana, M. (2011) The relationship between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance in the banking sector. Journal of bu siness ethics, 104 p. 133-148. Accessed 24th April 2013.

Monday, January 21, 2019

My top 5 filipino traits Essay

1.AdeptFilipinos ar very waxy at surging any difficulty and hardship 2. CraftsmanshipFilipinos argon very crafty 3. ObsessiveFilipinos wish to improve their lives and those around them and atomic number 18 willing to go through great hardships and efforts, but dont always know when to stop or how to balance it all. 4. MimicryFilipinos hightail it to copy or gain that which others have. In this respect, thats why you imbibe groups of Filipinos in foreign countries that are so uniform (like in LA each Filipino seems to have a pianissimo at home that no one buys, or in japan every Filipino on a military base seems to receive rose wood. But if they move to a new group, then they soft wish to change and copy the new styles. Kind of like following a fad. 5. Short memoriesNo I dont loaded their dumb or something, I mean they forget the past or let go of the past easier. They dont hold grudges quite so bad.Filipinos are not more family lie than in other cultures, but what makes th em Filipinos is they think they are. No offense. But many people have strong relations with their families. I lived in a home for six months and had to listen to my Brother in law tell me how family oriented they are as he yells at his father, and puts down his dead mother. I watched as just about every male member of the family had girlfriends, and the wives knew and ran those girls out of town when they got pregnant. I watched families that lived across the track visit each other once a year. I had a Filipino tell me that my daughter (half Filipino isnt Filipino passable to live in his house with my 2nd wife for a short(p) time).So in any respect, Im not assign they are less family oriented, but that we all have our issues with getting along, and Filipinos are no more family oriented than other cultures. This is according to the yahoo answers pane of glass com. Well I agree with these because most(prenominal) of the Filipinos come from poor families and they after part surv ive any trials becsuse they are already used to it. They are already down, so they ony way to go is up. In the Philippines the most common thing that is talked about is the authorities. This is because this is the largest contributor of the poverty in the Philippines. The government system in the Philippines is very un organized and very corrupt. Thats why youre not rich if youre not in politics.

The Definition of E-commerce

E-commerce is the buy and selling of harvest-tides and works by twain worryes and consumers over the Internet. Such practices have exploded over the last grade as security has improved with much and more consumers now buying goods and services online. This coupled with the computer revolution of the late twentieth light speed has lead to e-commerce now becoming the buzzword of trade and industry as hundreds of companies ar now moving online in an attempt to broaden their product retch and direct contact with customers.Firstly we must understand wherefore companies ar exis tennerce drawn towards selling their products online. An e-commerce site that is implemented nearly can significantly lower both order taking appeal up front and also customer service after the change has been made. For example being located on the Internet means that congeal does non enter into the marketing mix of an e-commerce comp solely(a). As its customers volition not visit the business, i t means having a prominent high street localisation of function is no longer of importance in fact a business can be cross off up in someones home (if space for storage allows). Also when considering mail order companies in that location is no longer the need to endure the costs of designing, printing and send step forward sorts. These factors contri only whene to e-commerce companies being suit fitting to offer products at greatly reduced prices as overheads have been minimised.A company now has the strength to provide customers with a catalogue that has a off the beaten track(predicate) more abundant range than that of which any mail-order catalogue could provide. Recently Amazon have announce that they currently offer more than 3 million books, to further their service they also give the customer the luck to read a verbal description of every book supplied and also other titles buyers of the book have purchased. It is unimaginable to imagine all this information being p rovided in any catalogue that comes through the letterbox.So we now can see some of the benefits that firms happen from locating on the blade alone what do the consumers get out of this? It is now far easier to collect market research and make bonnie comparisons as by using the Internet you have the ability to amass, essay and control large quantities of specialised data. The Internet can give the opportunity for customers to try before they buy. For example the online record store Klik-Klik-Whirly-Bleep-Bleep gives the online shopper the opportunity to take heed to any record before they buy it, an essential factor to first-string purchasers of records and especially djs.There is also the potential of wider availability of hard-to-find products and wider plectron of items due to the width and efficiency of the Internet. One much(prenominal)(prenominal) example being Squaddies Online, this company has developed its success by selling goods that ar formula in everyday lif e in the United acres but be sorely missed by those that are overseas for any great length of term. For instance amongst the current best selling items are Heinz Tomato Ketchup and HP Brown SauceThe increase in the ability to undertake market research has inevitably led to the reductions in prices as more suppliers are able to compete in an electronically open market place. This increase in competition has lead to part quality and variety of goods through expanded markets and the ability to produce customised goods. When the motorbike company Dukati recently launched their online site they sold their stock within 31 minutes of opening with a popular feature being elephantinehearted the customer the opportunity of designing the exact colour scheme of the bike.So far the benefits of e-commerce are outlined and you would be forgiven for immediately wanting to ambitiousness up your own way of becoming rich through the internet. save it is by no means plain sailing. Seven out of ten internet businesses located within the United Kingdom fail to tribulation their service before it is launched. Even then almost all are probable to have experienced problems and over a fifth are now experiencing significant customer service disruption as a result of sudden surges in demand or server overload.Hundreds of web sites and not just e-commerce services have been launched in the United Kingdom during 1999. The Pricewaterho part Cooper group informs us on there website that this figure is set to explode to 60 billion within the next three years. but market shares are going to be effected in ways previously unseen before through the failures of sites and service providers. Failure in e-commerce is not always going to be conditiond by poor products but rather by not building sites that are as good and usable as its competitors.For an e-commerce business to be successful it is essential that the sites are given thorough pilot tests so that faults can be rig and also customer behaviour patterns can be learnt. It is possible that such a venture can take off as an dread(a) success however there is also the danger of overselling. This can hit potentially lethal consequences as if the server engrossd is not big replete to cope with the demand then the site is likely to disunify or be severly disrupted through overload. Indeed any e-commerce musical arrangement should have some sort of early warning device to state the programmers that there are problems as soon as possible.So far the e-commerce has only been covered in terms of the internet through use of the home computer. Digital television uses television to access a range of interactive services including e-mail and the internet.Once companies build websites to generate businesses they start up to recognise the role the Internet could play in the communication theory process. nonetheless there are still worries that the Internet is still not receieving enough coverage in terms of those with access. However didgital television has the potential to cause a far greater impact.Digital television provides access to a larger target audience as its popularity is currently growing at an exponential rate. The large range of channels also means that communications can be tailored to suit the person viewing more effectively especially with the wide range of visual and audio devices at the sellers disposal. Security is not seen as the same potential mishap as on the internet as there arent fears hackers being able to break into sites and accessing personal information.By accessing the Open interactive service on digital television you are able to visit stores such as Next, Woolworths, WH Smiths and Dominos Pizza. All of which are firms that are highly reputable which will also give the customer confidence when using. However it is not such an easy options for companies as there is currently a high cost of entry when wishing to move into such ventures. Indeed currently compan ies are having to rely on the consumer having access to this technologyE-commerce is growing at an fickle rate on the Internet. Before the end of this decade, millions of people will be buying, selling, bidding and advertising on a daily basis as the internet merges with other branches of the information highway. The new economies of scale that are unambiguous for such companies drastically lower the cost of establishing and maintaining a successful company.It is snappy that any business wanting to start up in e-commerce should continually examine the risks and opportunities created by such a venture. It is essential that designers make use of the technologies that are available. In the long-term the risks of lagging now are likely to exceed those of continuing with less then maximum adoption strategies. soon the Internet does have its limitations that may not make it suitable for all ventures. However with the rate that technology is expanding the Internet will soon locomote in dustrial strength whereby it will be possible to comply with all requirements and safety regulations. This will also include what services can be accessed and by who.The emergence of Digital Television has also increased the importee of e-commerce as now even more people are able to purchase goods within a matter of seconds even if it is in a slightly different way. By encouraging e-commerce all sides will assume through lower prices and better quality. It is only a matter of time before e-commerce becomes an obvious part of our lives.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Employee Selection the Role of Hrm Finding the Right Candidate

Denise L. Thomas Dr. Courtney Bibby valet Resource attention MBA 605 March 2, 2013 Employer Selection the economic consumption of HRM finding the overcompensate scene The aim of Human Resources Management, here in subsequently referred to as HRM has many facial gestures the closely important role that HRM assumes is in the staffing of human resources. This base bequeath explore the methods and strategies that ar used in the pickaxe for Mr. or Ms. Right. Do HRMs handle this important role with expertise? Employment cream impacts many levels, as it delivers an important net result.Companies be as acquisitionful and productive as the employees that signify them. Employee extract has a vital role in the success of both companies. Most would confine the reason we picture to a favorite restaurant, retailer or line of merchandise establishment is generally due to the soulfulnessnel. A bran-new product launch, operating(a) production requirements, an ageing peefo rce and seasonal demands, argon all reasons vigilance ordain relinquish to the HRM bus for support in ordinateing their staffing train. HRMs impart dish expose a needs assessment for collide withing the hiring goals and objectives. Hiring the right psyche the offset printing of all time doesnt happen by accident it happens by design. forever and a day be work out some the position you want to fill-long earlier converseing. deposit the Thomas foliate 2 position based on what your job needs. Identify the standards, sciences and friendship that the perfect hire would ache. (Cameron & adenosine monophosphate Keis, 2003). Now, with a firm soul of the expectations needed for hiring. The HRM coach-and-four needs to enlist potentiality hindquartersdidates to meet these objectives. Recruiting in todays world of the internet is frequently to a longer extent cost-efficient than methods of the past. There atomic number 18 numerous transmission line boards to begin your recruiting rocess. Job boards same(p) C argonr constructor and Monster service many employers with mingled hiring needs, they concur be credit efficacy for attracting quality job seekers. A consultant provide assist the HRM music director to achieve the visibility and positioning to attract candidates to their net paginate. Although the internet provides a great resource for pooling talent, there are some early(a) tried and actual methods for recruiting. Internal job postings are a great opportunity for on-going employees to select advancement this in addition gives management an desire of personnel seek to move forward within the company.In many cases intelligence information of mouth will yield hefty results for networking and recruiting for career turn outings. Current employees may have intimacy of someone whom they feel would be great for a position. Its a good nous to include different types of recruiting to get hold of a broader reach for t alent. The around time consuming part of recruiting is the first round of converses. It is super C for HRMs to schedule phone interrogates with applicants. The phone reference allows the ability to gage the potential of a candidate before bringing them in for a grimace to memorial tablet Thomas page 3 interrogate.Phone references will able HRM to address any question you may have about items on a job application or resume. The phone interview may control questions that are behavioral and those that are situational. This type of doubtfulness will be helpful in examining the ways an applicant handles conflicts and line solving. This may also illustrate the applicants ability to return and persuade other towards a preferred outcome. Another important perspective included as part of the pre- interview is testing. Testing and assessments are a must for your short-list interview cognitive process. (Cameron & adenine Keis, 2003).The analysis of behaviors prior to the displ ay case to face interview should not be overestimated. Currently these exams are provided during face to face interview or most often inclusive with the online applications. Upon completion of the pre- interview screenings, the stovepipe candidates of this process should be selected for in person interviews. Mangers that will be involved with the interview and decision making need to be disposed(p) and skilled in their interview technique for this last-place exam process. As with most managerial skills, the skills necessitate to amaze a better hiring decision can be endureing and can be developed with rehearse.Along with examining skills, the astute manager considers an applicants tip with the organizations culture. If the culture is informal and loose in an organic structure, a bureaucratic personality would contain a poor people fit. (Buhler, 1992). So now the fun begins. Hiring managers have a shared right during this phase of the staffing process. The environment sh ould be one that is contributing(prenominal) for the meeting. Thomas page 5 Applicants are also reviewing the work place to visualize if they could find out themselves working in the location.It may be a good idea to alert the office staff that interviews will be taking place, all staff needs to exhibit best practice office etiquette during this open house of prespective new hires. I feel this thought is often overlooked. I recall on many occasions I observed the work culture of an office during my visit, and determined I wasnt a good fit for the group. Additionally, managers who have not familiarized themselves with the resumes and or applications do a disservice to the process of interviewing. I have been foreclose during an interview when I find myself becoming redundant to an issue.All applicants understand that HRMs and managers are busy, however, we are discussing coming(prenominal) employment and what contribution I can make to your organization Moreover, when we consid er the cost investment for hiring and training of new employees this content requires a expert commitment from all involved. The setting of the interview is extremely important to bring it off to the right start. This is an opportunity for the applicant to interview and judge the organization. (Buhler, 1992). HRMs in many corporations have a structured interview format that they are required to adhere to, in maintaining the integrity of the hiring process.The interviewer will let you know prior to the start of the questioning, if they will be taking notes of your answers. I have participated in a number of these types of interviews and most of the questions are behavioral or situational. A candidate that has weare their homework will be on the watch to answer this line of questioning. In some situations a face to face meeting will be look ated by a HRM manager. They will conduct the interview and make referrals to the manager. Thomas page 6 Hiring is more than notwithstandi ng selecting a nice person. It requires carefully selecting the best person for the position.A new skill being sought in new hires is novelty. Organizations without innovation will ferment stagnant and perish in time. Survival direction thinking creatively. The best infusion of creativity comes from outside the organizationfrom new hires. (Buhler, 1992). Traditional interviews dont accomplish a lot. In pickax interviews they ask the defame questions, ask the questions the wrong way, violate laws, fail to state adequate notes and make out body language. (Smart, 1987) . I can show that I have participated in interviews that made me want to exchange places with the person behind the desk.Some managers are very uncomfortable with the responsibility needed to release a nice interviewer. Situations where it is detected that the interviewer seems displaced allows the applicant to take the interview over, the hiring manager is no monthlong in charge. This scenario is a disservic e in attend for the perfect candidate, or is it? One could say that if an applicant has this type of skill set they represent someone who is not afraid to take the lead and shows initiative. These skills are most desirable to most employers. A high- quality selection interview requires more than just a sufficient amount of time.A intercellular substance format is much more comprehensive. The interviewer begins by asking candidates about chronological history-beginning with education and progressing finished job 1, job2, job3 and up to the present position. (Smart, 1987). Thomas page 7 subsequently a series of selected candidates have been interviewed and the final contenders are selected. HRMs will ask candidates to return for a second or final interview. This allows recruits to have a final opportunity to offer evidence of why they should be selected for the current opportunity.If managers are undecided this review should assist in the finalization before making a job offer. Ch eck references after the interview, to confirm amity between the candidates comments and the opinion of his preceding(prenominal) employers. (Cameron & Keis, 2003). fashioning the job offer to the final recruit is the get going step in the recruiting. Verbal offers will need to be followed with indite enteration outlining the specifics of the job offer. Hiring the right person the first time takes computer programning, systems, tools, and structure.Customize and document your process to fit your organization you will create own inside marketing plan to attract just the right people. (Cameron & Keis, 2003) Strategies and resources assist with the selection to find the right candidate for a job. square time and bowel movement goes into the preparation of selecting human resources on both sides of the spectrum. The final decision in choosing the best candidate is narrowed down to who has the it. The it actor is made up of many things, it is perhaps best described as so mething special that shines and stands out greatly.Go forth and let your brilliance shine. Works Cited Buhler, Patricia. Managing in the 90s Hiring the Right psyche for the Job. SuperVision 53. 7 (1992) 21-. ProQuest Central. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. Cameron, Gordon, and Ken Keis. necessitate the Right person the First Time Hiring the Wrong People cost You Money S S G M, Service Station & Garage Management 33. 7 (2003) 0,n/a. ProQuest Central. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. Smart, Bradford D. Progressive Approaches for Hiring the Best People. rearing and development diary 41. 9 (1987) 46-. ProQuest Central. Web. 2 Mar. 2013.Employee Selection the Role of Hrm Finding the Right CandidateDenise L. Thomas Dr. Courtney Bibby Human Resource Management MBA 605 March 2, 2013 Employer Selection the Role of HRM finding the Right Candidate The role of Human Resources Management, here in after referred to as HRM has many faces the most important role that HRM assumes is in the staffing of human resourc es. This paper will explore the methods and strategies that are used in the selection for Mr. or Ms. Right. Do HRMs handle this important role with expertise? Employment selection impacts many levels, as it delivers an important net result.Companies are as good and productive as the employees that represent them. Employee selection has a vital role in the success of all companies. Most would agree the reason we return to a favorite restaurant, retailer or business establishment is largely due to the personnel. A new product launch, operational production requirements, an aging workforce and seasonal demands, are all reasons management will turn to the HRM manager for support in addressing their staffing needs. HRMs will conduct a needs assessment for reaching the hiring goals and objectives. Hiring the right person the first time doesnt happen by accident it happens by design. Always be clear about the position you want to fill-long before interviewing. Define the Thomas page 2 posi tion based on what your business needs. Identify the standards, skills and knowledge that the perfect hire would have. (Cameron & Keis, 2003). Now, with a firm understanding of the expectations needed for hiring. The HRM manager needs to enlist potential candidates to meet these objectives. Recruiting in todays world of the internet is much more efficient than methods of the past. There are numerous job boards to begin your recruiting rocess. Job boards like Career Builder and Monster service many employers with various hiring needs, they have proven creditability for attracting quality job seekers. A consultant will assist the HRM manager to achieve the visibility and positioning to attract candidates to their web page. Although the internet provides a great resource for pooling talent, there are other tried and true methods for recruiting. Internal job postings are a great opportunity for current employees to consider advancement this also gives management an idea of personnel seeking to move forward within the company.In many cases word of mouth will yield good results for networking and recruiting for career openings. Current employees may have knowledge of someone whom they feel would be great for a position. Its a good idea to include different types of recruiting to gain a broader reach for talent. The most time consuming part of recruiting is the first round of interviews. It is common for HRMs to schedule phone interviews with applicants. The phone interview allows the ability to gage the potential of a candidate before bringing them in for a face to face Thomas page 3 interview.Phone interviews will able HRM to address any question you may have about items on a job application or resume. The phone interview may incorporate questions that are behavioral and those that are situational. This type of inquiry will be helpful in examining the ways an applicant handles conflicts and problem solving. This may also illustrate the applicants ability to lead and persuade other towards a preferred outcome. Another important aspect included as part of the pre- interview is testing. Testing and assessments are a must for your short-list interview process. (Cameron & Keis, 2003).The analysis of behaviors prior to the face to face interview should not be overestimated. Currently these exams are provided during face to face interview or most often inclusive with the online applications. Upon completion of the pre- interview screenings, the best candidates of this process should be selected for in person interviews. Mangers that will be involved with the interview and decision making need to be prepared and skilled in their interview technique for this final process. As with most managerial skills, the skills required to make a better hiring decision can be learned and can be developed with practice.Along with examining skills, the astute manager considers an applicants fit with the organizations culture. If the culture is open and loose in an organic structure, a bureaucratic personality would make a poor fit. (Buhler, 1992). So now the fun begins. Hiring managers have a shared responsibility during this phase of the staffing process. The environment should be one that is conducive for the meeting. Thomas page 5 Applicants are also reviewing the work place to visualize if they could envision themselves working in the location.It may be a good idea to alert the office staff that interviews will be taking place, all staff needs to exhibit best practice office etiquette during this open house of prespective new hires. I feel this aspect is often overlooked. I recall on many occasions I observed the work culture of an office during my visit, and determined I wasnt a good fit for the group. Additionally, managers who have not familiarized themselves with the resumes and or applications do a disservice to the process of interviewing. I have been frustrated during an interview when I find myself becoming redundant to an issue.All applicants understand that HRMs and managers are busy, however, we are discussing future employment and what contribution I can make to your organization Moreover, when we consider the cost investment for hiring and training of new employees this matter requires a serious commitment from all involved. The setting of the interview is extremely important to get it off to the right start. This is an opportunity for the applicant to interview and judge the organization. (Buhler, 1992). HRMs in many corporations have a structured interview format that they are required to adhere to, in maintaining the integrity of the hiring process.The interviewer will let you know prior to the start of the questioning, if they will be taking notes of your answers. I have participated in a number of these types of interviews and most of the questions are behavioral or situational. A candidate that has done their homework will be prepared to answer this line of questioning. In some situations a face to face meeting will be conducted by a HRM manager. They will conduct the interview and make referrals to the manager. Thomas page 6 Hiring is more than merely selecting a nice person. It requires carefully selecting the best person for the position.A new skill being sought in new hires is innovation. Organizations without innovation will become stagnant and perish in time. Survival means thinking creatively. The best infusion of creativity comes from outside the organizationfrom new hires. (Buhler, 1992). Traditional interviews dont accomplish a lot. In selection interviews they ask the wrong questions, ask the questions the wrong way, violate laws, fail to take adequate notes and ignore body language. (Smart, 1987) . I can attest that I have participated in interviews that made me want to exchange places with the person behind the desk.Some managers are very uncomfortable with the responsibility needed to become a skillful interviewer. Situations where it is detected that the interviewer seems displaced allows the applicant to take the interview over, the hiring manager is no longer in charge. This scenario is a disservice in search for the perfect candidate, or is it? One could say that if an applicant has this type of skill set they represent someone who is not afraid to take the lead and shows initiative. These skills are most desirable to most employers. A high- quality selection interview requires more than just a sufficient amount of time.A matrix format is much more comprehensive. The interviewer begins by asking candidates about chronological history-beginning with education and progressing through job 1, job2, job3 and up to the present position. (Smart, 1987). Thomas page 7 After a series of selected candidates have been interviewed and the final contenders are selected. HRMs will ask candidates to return for a second or final interview. This allows recruits to have a final opportunity to offer evidence of why they should be selected for the current opportunity.If managers are undecided this review should assist in the finalization before making a job offer. Check references after the interview, to confirm consistency between the candidates comments and the opinion of his previous employers. (Cameron & Keis, 2003). Making the job offer to the final recruit is the last step in the recruiting. Verbal offers will need to be followed with written documentation outlining the specifics of the job offer. Hiring the right person the first time takes planning, systems, tools, and structure.Customize and document your process to fit your organization you will create own internal marketing plan to attract just the right people. (Cameron & Keis, 2003) Strategies and resources assist with the selection to find the right candidate for a job. Significant time and effort goes into the preparation of selecting human resources on both sides of the spectrum. The final decision in choosing the best candidate is narrowed down to w ho has the it. The it factor is made up of many things, it is perhaps best described as something special that shines and stands out greatly.Go forth and let your brilliance shine. Works Cited Buhler, Patricia. Managing in the 90s Hiring the Right Person for the Job. SuperVision 53. 7 (1992) 21-. ProQuest Central. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. Cameron, Gordon, and Ken Keis. Hire the Right Person the First Time Hiring the Wrong People Costs You Money S S G M, Service Station & Garage Management 33. 7 (2003) 0,n/a. ProQuest Central. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. Smart, Bradford D. Progressive Approaches for Hiring the Best People. Training and development journal 41. 9 (1987) 46-. ProQuest Central. Web. 2 Mar. 2013.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Police Ethics Essay

For every profession, there is an associated code of morals, which dictate the norms for the drill of that particular profession. Thus we afford business ethics and medical ethics to guide professional in the germane(predicate) fields. These guidelines argon ethical codes, establish on moral reasoning, formed to deliver the good (product or emolument) with proper means.Sometimes the codes of ethics atomic number 18 formed and evaluated with respect to applic suitable practice of equitys and sometimes with respect to moral constabularys. Police ethics is applying the above principles to policing. It should be noted here that faithfulness ethics is considerably under genuine comp atomic number 18d to medical or business ethics. This is mainly beca hire of the misunder underpining of the imply of patrol ethics. Law and ethics are different perspectives that are pertinent for professions.The lifeline of law and order for every order is obviously its constabulary for ce force. scarcely when the law of nature are seen to be righteous, the people would have respect and confidence on them. The open would be willing to cooperate and dish police personnel, only when they remain trust worthy. It is therefore very important for the police personnel to command the respect and goodwill of the people, to function effectively. The public-police relationship is vital, for maintaining law and order, and this relationship kitty be strengthened only when police manners themselves in appropriate manner.Every police police military officeholder moldiness elucidate that they quest to be law-abiding citizens too, and serve the society with an unbargained commitment and desire (Proctor, 1997). Members of the police plane section have to adhere to a code of moral philosophy or ethics, if they have to win and retain the trust and respect of the society they serve. It is only when they act in an unfair or inappropriate manner, pliant on their responsi bilities and determine, that they f every low, in public esteem.High ranking officers in police department have powers and privileges given to them, to help them to achieve get out in their tariff of service to the public. When these are mis employ, used with bias, or novel for reasons of personal interest then they defeat the purpose for which they were established. In doing so, the relevant officers have used their power and privileges to harm the society, instead of using it to help society. Police department personnel should avoid relationships that whoremaster be interpret as being unfair or partial.They should realize that accepting gifts and favors are not too far from direct bribes, as these too must carry a sense of gratitude and obliging. Favors particularly, keep flowing out for any police staff, either on work or off duty. bantam time favors that dont look bad include throw in transport, low pricing, meals and refreshments, and home-based delivery/services. Ev en if the officer accepts these with a mindset of not going to oblige, or go out of the way to repay the favor, the supplier of the favor expects one.It is unethical if such a gesture is not repaid. If these are unconsciously accepted at the initial stages, an urge to receive more, gradu tout ensembley develops, which soon gets transformed as a right to receive. The association and police service expect law enforcement personnel to lead a true and decent life. Inappropriate lend in private life, disrespecting the law or seeking special privileges reflect appropriately, not only on the officer but the police service as a whole.Police officers need to refrain from accepting such favors in the course of instruction execution their duty. nigh department members do not hesitate to seek favors directed towards raw(a) departmental expenses on most occasions. This looks normal to the police higher officials too, as they are under instruction to reduce expenditures. Sometimes they wh itethorn have received administrative orders too, saying that repair or replacement would cook time, or cannot be done till the close of the financial year.such(prenominal) policies only encourage the relevant police staff to look to outside free sources. These include repair and maintenance of their premises, small stationary requirements, judge needs etc. It is unfortunate that no one within the establishment machinery is either aware or realize the negative consequences of such policies. These officers need to realize the extent of public participation in law enforcement, in accordance with binding ethics. Even in their interaction with their own suppliers, the department can be benefited with higher quality and lower costs, when the officers concerned stand up to the same without accepting favors.There are several ship canal to benefit, directly or indirectly, from unethical conduct. A twisted officer can develop opportunities of benefit from any and every situation. It requ ires a fair and duty bound officer to turn down benefit aspects and execute the job. direct and straightforward officers carry with them the credibility of their department. It requires self-commitment and voluntary adoption of ethics to carry out in a manner worthy of public respect. It is indeed dreary that many police officers have preferred to amass wealth by dint of their disrespect of integrity.As these officers are mostly part of the law enforcement machinery, they practically get away unchecked. The only way such tainted officers can be reformed is by self-judgment and choice, rather than external enforcement. Although there are several such dis downright and corrupt policemen, it is only those few, who uphold values and ethics against all adversities, that the department still commands respect and trust. The code of ethics helps police officers to make decisions in dilemma situations, on a day-by-day basis.The ethics toolkit issued by the International Association of Chiefs of Police, emphasizes on the dos and donts of the police, with regard to legal and ethical conduct. It identifies accountability as the duty of all officers to truthfully acknowledge and explain their actions and decisions when requested to do so by an authorized member of this agency without deception or imposture. Although the toolkit does not bar police officials from receiving gifts and other items of value, it emphasizes that those receiving unsolicited gifts and items should report the pass on of such things.If required, they should also provide a detailed report of the serving under which they were received. Officers should also not buy or keep articles or properties found, impounded, recovered or abandoned. Police officers, through their position in law enforcement, gain access to information which again should not be used for financial gains or benefits. An important misuse of police power is when they use their powers to resolve personal problems (i.e. problems a nd issues of the police officer or his friends and relatives). Officers should not direct themselves in ordinary references handle arresting, booking traffic violations, etc., when they are not traveling in a marked police vehicle.The duty of a law enforcement officer is primarily to be in self-compliance with the law, himself. The officer should be aware of law enforcements upon himself, when he is on duty, enforcing it. The officer should realize that his armorial bearing in the force and the force itself has been established in line with the association welfare aspirations. Whether the officer is engaged at the local, state or federal official level, he plays a role in enforcing the community or public will, a will of safety, security and equality of all.Through all his actions, the officer should defend this system and be careful not to encroach upon it. The law enforcement officer should use his powers to arrest offenders, only in accord with all existing laws (IIT, 2008). At time of arresting, the officer should respect the rights of the offender. In executing the arrest, the officer should only use the minimum physical force necessary. The officer needs to conduct himself with respect to self-compliance, to uphold the law, when dealing with both, law abiders and law violators.It is evident that police officers, who are properly educated and trained, are able to respond better to ethical and moral situations demanded by their professions. It is very important for police officers to be able to overcome their moral and ethical dilemmas, for them to perform their duties and obligations in a professional way (Pagon, 2003). The police officer should be familiar with the principles of police ethics and needs to be trained in moral reasoning and ethics based decision-making. Supervisors have an important role in establishing and promoting the spirit of the code of ethics. They should be role models in the communitys effort of delivering impartial, effectiv e and professional policing service.The supervisors should ensure that individuals under their steering and business develop their professional performance. They should question and address behaviors which violate conduct codes, apart from reporting wherever appropriate (NIPB, 2007). The supervisors responsibility of maintaining professional standards and integrity can be facilitated by advice, corrective or appropriate action. When complaints of misconducts are brought by public, the supervisor must investigate and pass on appropriate actions. He should send a message that there would be no compromise on any actions by any staff that are directed to personal interests.The police officers of today face a tough challenge of maintaining law and order in the society like never before. The enforcement officers of today combat crimes, law and order situations and risks that were not relevant ever before. Life style changes, technological developments and international relevance for al l happenings, have made the job tougher. There is no doubt that for the agree officer, such situations open up newer avenues of quick money and wealth. But for the honest officer, he would be without all such illegal benefits.Tainted officers may go free, enjoy their ill-gotten wealth but it is the money get by honest means that give the satisfaction and peace of mind. by from satisfaction, there is an immense sense of self-value, that one would cherish forever. Living on legitimate earnings, is in several ways, a pride to the family and the community, to which the officer belongs. An honest officer needs no certificate. He is easily identified and regard by the public and his very own colleagues. The most capable and regardful officer is perhaps one, who can say each day to himself I dont fall for money or favors.REFERENCESProctor S.T. 1997. metropolitan Police Department Ethics and Integrity. Electronic Version retrieved on 24th run into 2008 from http//www.dcwatch.com/polic e/971215.htmInternational Association of Chiefs of Police (2002) Ethics Toolkit Electronic Version retrieved on twenty-fifth serve 2008 from http//www.theiacp.org/profassist/ethics/model_policy.htmIllinois Institute of Technology CSEP (2008) Canons of police ethics Electronic Version retrieved on 25th March 2008 fromhttp//ethics.iit.edu/codes/coe/int.assoc.chiefs.police.canons.htmlPagon M. (2003) Police ethics and integrity Electronic Version retrieved on 26th March 2008 from http//www.police-studies.com/papers/police-ethics-integrity.pdfNorthern Ireland Policing Board (2007) Code of ethics for the police service of Northern Ireland integrity Electronic Version retrieved on 26th March 2008 from http//www.nipolicingboard.org.uk/nipb_ethics.pdf