Monday, September 30, 2019

Digital Espionage

Attacks on sites had been a common occurence ever since the boom of the Internet market, and it is only usual for people to get into the business themselves either legally or ilegally. Since the occurence of these attacks anti-virus companies had been built, adding yet another business into the market. But the level of attacks had been vastly improving, and one example is what happened on Google, one of the world’s leading search engine. On January 12, 2010, Google announced on its blog that it had been attacked. It was said to have occured from mid last year and finished last December.Google stated that over 20 other companies including Adobe and Microsoft, had also been victims. On that same day, US Secretary Hilary Clinton publicly asked for an explanation from the Chinese government. Google became aware of the attack themselves, through their inside sources. According to Newsweek, at the time, they contacted Rafal Rohozinski, CEO of The SecDev Group (a global security and research firm) because the attack was very similar to GhostNet (a large scale cyber spying event last March 2009) and they wanted to know what they could share that might be helpful to their in-house investigation.The attack seems to be emanating from the jurisdiction of China. Google said that the hackers were interested in accessing the Gmail accounts of Chinese human rights activists. According to the Financial Times, a person named Ai Weiwei had his two accounts hacked, their contents read and copied. On the others, however, they were only able to view limited details such as the subject line and the creation date of the account. It was said that the attack started when an employee in China click on an infected linked, which was sent through an instant message.The attacker was able to access the person’s computer, and eventually Google’s headquarters in California. It also accessed Google’s Moma, an intenal directory that stores information on each of the em ployees work task. Carlos Carillo, principal consultant of Mandiant (security incident response and forensics firm) was also called in by Google. He said that it was â€Å"definitely one of the most sophisticated attacks I've seen in the last few years†¦ This wasn't something that a 16-year-old came up in his spare time.† He said that they’ve seen similar attacks like this on the government, but never on the commercial space. The level of the attack had certainly been done by a group of experts. Last January 14, 2010, McAfee reported that the attackers had exploited zero-day vulnerabilities and called the attack â€Å"Operation Aurora†. They exploited a hole in Microsoft’s Internet Explorer even if their DEP (Data Execution Prevention) was turned on. The vulnerability affects Internet Explorer versions 6, 7, and 8 on Windows 7, Vista, Windows XP, Server 2003, Server 2008 R2, as well as IE 6 Service Pack 1 on Windows 2000 Service Pack 4.It would be ve ry hard to exploit the flaw on Windows Vista or Windows 7, however, because of its advanced memory protection technology. Zero-day vulnerabilities are those flaws that are unknown to the developer. When the attacker discovers the vulnerability before the developer does, it can prove to be very dangerous. The attacker can either use the vulnerability to copy the information and make a similar program and then sell it to the market, or he can use the vulnerability to directly destroy the program of the developer.As with Google, analysts said that â€Å"China is likely using its maturing computer network exploitation capability to support intelligence collection against the U. S. government and industry by conducting a long term, sophisticated computer network exploitation campaign. † At least 10 to 20 terabytes of data had been taken from Google and other companies. Days after the attack, the exploit had been opened to the public, which are now dangerous to the internet communi ty. Paul Ducklin, Head of Technology (Asia Pacific) from Sophos Lab(developer and vendor of security software and hardware), explained how the exploit on Google was done.The Aurora explot relies on a used-after free bug. The exploit uses java script to control over the browser as it crashes. The exploit has all the usual javascript tricks: heap spray (technique used to facilitate arbitary code execution) and nop sleds (No Operation Execution, meaning to â€Å"slide† the instruction on its final destination) . At the end of the nop sled is the shellcode, (the actual malicious binary code that the hacker wants to execute) and a coming bid which uses javascript events that tricks the browser into misusing memory in the first place.He went to a test server wherein he edited the shellcode, that contains debug breakpoints and he added some human readable text â€Å"WARHEAD† so that if the computer crashed he can visually confirm that it was into the computer’s shellco de. He tried it in IE 6, wherein he put it in the debug controller and only attaching debug to it (the reason for doing so is of course because of the debug breakpoints, so if the exploit actually works, he can track back into the debugger). Then he clicked on Internet Explorer and visited the malicious site.The exploit actually relies on fetching image files. It worked when he tried to see the address on the debugger, â€Å"WARHEAD† came out. Usually, a good anti-virus program can protect internet users from these kind of exploits. In order to fix the IE flaw, Microsoft stepped out of its normal monthly patch cycle to release a patch. The users of IE are now required to run Windows update and click on MS10-002 update to fix it. Meanwhile, Google announced that it would stop censoring its search results in China.David Drimmond, Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer of Google said â€Å"Users visiting Google. cn are now being redirected to Googl e. com. hk, where we are offering uncensored search in simplified Chinese, specifically designed for users in mainland China and delivered via our servers in Hong Kong. † Censorship in China had been a rule to maintain the country’s communism. Censhorship prevents unapproved reformist, separatist, â€Å"counter-revolutionary† ideas from organizing themselves and spreading.It also prevents Chinese citizens from discovering or learning more about past and current failures of the Communist Party that could create or inflame anti-government sentiment. They had also intended on blocking foreign government websites to prevent the people from learning alternative systems of governance . What Google did was a risky step because China may stop doing business with Google altogether. And China, is one of the most sought-after market in the world today.Analysts expects China's search market to reach 10 billion yuan ($1.46 billion) this year. However, in 5 to 10 years, what G oogle did may prove to be advantageous for them. Ben Sargent, an analyst with Common Sense Advisory, a market research company said that â€Å"As a culture, China is much more long-term thinking than most other cultures. No other government takes such long-term views as the Chinese government,† Sargent said. â€Å"So Google is trying to out-Chinese the Chinese in terms of making a really long-term play for young people's hearts and minds in China. â€Å"Google had always been concerned on its position in China, but the country is too big of a market to ignore. As what Rohozinski have said, â€Å"Engagement is better than exclusion. † You can do a lot more for the people if you work from the inside than just standing around and watching. Google went in with their eyes wide open. Sergey Brin(founder of Google), who had been from the Soviet Union understood China on its political views. The cyber spying just gave them the opportunity to make their stand and make the wor ld praise them for it.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Verbal Bullying

Abstract Bullying may give particular students self-confidence, but school bullying must be stopped. Being the victim of bullying can lower a victim’s self-esteem, cause psychological problems, and have many other long term effects. This research represented ways individuals can see the short term and long term effects of being a bully or the victim. There are many demographics of bullying. Suicide and school violence is on the rise. Victims of bullies can often get severely depressed and have low self-esteem.They start thinking of how to take care of the problem themselves. The outcome can take innocent bystanders lives. School is starting for the tri state area kids. Parents are excited, kids are bummed, and teachers are preparing for the new school year. One Subject that parents and teachers have been focusing their attention on is bullying. They have got to prepare to act quickly and know when a student is bullying or being bullied. Parents and teachers are watching for si gns of their children being bullied or doing the bullying.Bullying may give particular students self-confidence, but school bullying must be stopped because being the victim of bullying can cause psychological problems, there are different types of bullying and they have many different short-term and long- term effects. According to Bullying Timeline(2008-2009), bullying is not something that has just surfaced in the past ten years, earliest categorized act of bullying behavior is dated all the way back to 1897. Dr. Dan Olweus conducted the first research on bullying in 1970.In 1978 the first book was released, â€Å"Aggression in the schools: Bullies and Whipping Boys. † Dr. Dan Olweus proposed a law against bullying in schools in 1981. In the mid-1990’s, Olweus argument led to legislation against bullying by the Swedish & Norwegian parliaments. This was the first proposal of an anti-bullying law. April 20th, 1999, was a revolution for the states, two teenage schoolbo ys, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, whom was persistently bullied, went on a shooting spree wounding twenty-three, fatally shooting thirteen, and taking their own lives.Children, parents and school officials around the country were shocked, and no one could deny the need for more pro-social and accepting school environments and a way to combat bullying among students. (The history of bullying in schools,2008-2009) The Free Online Dictionary’s definition of a bully is, â€Å"a person who is habitually cruel or overbearing, especially to smaller or weaker people. † Bullying hasn’t really changed over the years, what has changed is the technology involved in bullying. Research and attention have become more focused on bullying since early 1970. Free Online Dictionary, 2012) The four types of bullying that are a significant focus. Verbal and physical are the most associated with bullying. Social and cyber bullying is an increasing rise, to focus more on. Verbal bully ing is the most common form of bullying. (Teenage Bullying,2009) Growing up we have all heard the saying, â€Å"sticks and stones may break my bones but words cannot hurt me. † As untrue as that saying is, name calling, rude comments, constant taunting, threats and teasing can be the breaking point for an individual. Words are painful as well as very affective on one’s life.Forgetting something that was said is not always that easy. Verbal bullying is most common among girls. It is easier to bully a girl with words than it is to physically bully a girl. Social bullying is also found typically amongst girls. (Being left out is worst form of bullying according to research,2011) Spreading rumors that are highly embarrassing, untrue, which can make the person feel ashamed about, who they are. Leaving someone out of a group or discussion on purpose, making the victim feel alone and uninvited to participate.Bullies can glare to intimidate their victim for saying something to someone else, or even being present when the bully is around. At times they give the silent treatment because they are mad or jealous of the person. (National Foundation for educational research,2011) Physical bullying appears to be the most obvious kind of bullying. Physical attacks such as: kicking, pushing, tripping, and spitting to show that they are in charge. Rude gestures like, pounding their fist to their hand resembling they will hit their victim. It is a powerful act to intimidate the weak and show who is in charge. Physical bullying is most common in young boys.They tend to use violence to demonstrate power. With the new technology cyber bullying is one of the prime methods in this day and age for a bully. Cyber bullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person. Facebook, MySpace and other forms of social networks are not the only forms of cyber bullying. Surprisingly, 42 percent of kids have been bullied while online through e-ma il, texting, chat rooms, forums, and instant messaging. (Cyber bullying Statistics: Statistics and Tips, 2004) Based on 2004 i-SAFE survey of 1,500 student’s grades 4-8, â€Å"35% of kids using the internet have been threatened online.Survey showed 21% of kids have received mean or threatening e-mail or other messages. While 58% of the kids admit someone has said mean or hurtful things to them online. Significantly, 58% have not told their parents or an adult about something mean or hurtful that happened to them online. On the other hand survey showed 53% of kids admit to having said something mean or hurtful to another person online. †(2004) (Cyber bullying Statistics: Statistics and Tips, 2004) Cyber bullying has changed how persistent bullies can be. When bullying was just at school, kids had home to go to after school and weekends.They only had to deal with bullying on the school grounds. There is no escape for victims whom are targeted at school currently. They ar e being targeted at home by internet bullying and texting. According to a research done by Stop Bullying,(2011) strangely enough there is no federal law directly addresses bullying, â€Å"in some cases, bullying overlaps with discriminatory harassment when it is based on race, national origin, color, sex, age, disability, or religion. When bullying and harassment overlap, federally-funded schools have an obligation to resolve the harassment.When the situation is not adequately resolved, the U. S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights and the U. S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division may be able to help. † (Federal Law, 2011) Forty-nine of the fifty states in the U. S. have approved school anti-bullying legislation. In 1999, Georgia was the first to be approved. (Georgia house bill, 2012) Montana is the only state without anti-bullying legislation. (MT-Senate bill 198, 2012) Local tri-state area anti-bullying laws are in affect. In 2007, Iow a jumped on board to create a state law and policies at schools for bullying.Wisconsin joined in 2010, with both school policies, as well as a state law, while in 2007 Illinois only has an anti-bullying law, but no school policy. (Bully Police, 2012) Oddly Illinois is ranked the 3rd most bullied state for k-12. (Top 5 States, 2011) Bullies are often mistaken as loners with low self-esteem. Bully’s naturally have an easier time making friends. It is easier to be a bully’s friend than to be bullied by him/her. A bully’s self-esteem is average or above normal. They are known to come from homes with limited supervision by parents, harsh or physical discipline at home ay have a role model with bullying engagements, and a one parent household. Children who participate in bullying often bully more than one individual. Their characteristics are often but not limited to: being impulsive, having a lack of empathy, as well as, becoming easily frustrated. They also have a t endency not to listen to authority. Generally, they do not like to follow rules. Some can look at violence in a positive way, and can often be found erratic. Kids who bully have a liking to find other friends who are bullies. Together they can become positive to violence. Children who bully, 2011) What are the signs to look for in children that are bullies? Bullying can be a sign of serious antisocial violent behavior. A victim at home can be a bully at school. Children who bully other kids are more likely to pick fights, be injured in fighting, vandalize property or steal from others, drink alcohol at an early age, smoke cigarettes, do recreational drugs, become absent from school or stop attending all together, and may carry weapons. If you ask a bully about weapons, majority own or have access to. Short term effects of being a bully are feeling the powerful use of anger.Control bullies have over other kids, and fear that was present when they are nearby. At the same time bullies are respected because it is easier to be friends with a bully then be bullied by the bully. The false happiness bullies think they are aiding by hurting others. Long term effects of being a bully. Becoming a criminal in later years of their lives, is a probability. Self- esteem and empathy never mended. Some feel they have reputations to live up to and feel they are invincible. Consequences never fear bullies in the long term effect because they do not care what happens next.For parents to recognize if their child is doing the bullying often have a strong need to dominate situations to get their own way and have the power over the household. Antisocial or criminal behavior at a young age can demonstrate that they are hanging out with the wrong kids. Children with aggressive behavior to rule a parent and not listen to what they have to say, and can become abusive toward their parents to dominate the situation and be in charge. (Children who bully, 1998-2012) Teachers are trained to w atch for signs of bullying. Children can be bullied in many ways physical, verbal, and emotional.Crick & Grotpeter (1995) discuss how there are more ways than just directly bullying; they can include indirect behaviors that cause a child to feel socially secluded. † Examples of this type of bullying could be leaving the student out of activities, spreading rumors, making him/her feel uncomfortable or scared, telling nasty stories, not allowing the person to speak to other children or be spoken to. This is also called relational aggression, which is primarily, but not exclusively associated with girls' bullying strategies â€Å"(Crick ; Grotpeter, 1995).Girls are more commonly responsible for the indirect behavior. Boys like to demonstrate their aggression and cause physical damage. In most cases, children are bullied because they are different and stick out in some way or another. Sometimes it is because one is smaller or bigger than the other kids. Age could be a factor in o ther cases. Being a specific gender, male versus female, or even a person’s sexual orientation could be a cause for bullying. A victim could be bullied because of economic status such as being rich or poor. Race, religion, beliefs and interests could be different from the bullies.There are many demographics for one to be a victim of bullying. Recognizing signs children being bullied can be more difficult than signs of your child being the bully. Children who are being victimized by bullying have one or several behaviors at home. They may come home with bruises, cuts, or other physical appearances without an explanation of how they got there. They do not want to go to school anymore or start taking a different route to and from school. Acting sad, depressed, irritable, and suddenly have temper outburst. May start to isolate themselves from others and become a loner.Schoolchildren who are bullied may suffer from different short-term effects. Anger along with frustration may bec ome collective feelings. Intention is that they want to retaliate, and have the desire for the bully to stop picking on he/she. Some frustration and anger come from not understanding why they are being the victim of bullying. Several start becoming afraid and concerned of what will occur next, and start developing anxiety. Victims from time to time can become depressed and feel it is their fault and begin to think; they hate life, hate themselves and hate existence.Low self-worth may play a part of short term bullying in which can cause illness. Some students may start to be absent from school, start to become a loner to avoid being bullied. Long term effects for the victim of being bullied are far more serious then short term effects. Severe depression is more than just a feeling of being down. Depression is a severe mood disorder in which feelings of unhappiness, along with other symptoms, can interfere with a person’s normal everyday activities for a long period of time.If severe depression is not treated swiftly, selected number of victims may get to the point of hurting themselves, thoughts of suicide, attempting suicide, or considerations or actions of hurting others. The worst case occurrence through bullying is when victims come back and retaliates the best way they feel is gratifying. Human instinct is to hurt someone who is hurting us. Making someone feel the way they have made us feel, becomes the only precedence some have. With that being said, there are school shootings and suicides on the rise.It is no longer just hurtful words, excluding someone from a group or event, giving each other silent treatment, or fist fighting. It has become a fatal concern on the rise. According to Bullying Statistics,(2009) the alarming figures are on the rise. * Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people, resulting in about 4,400 deaths per year, according to the CDC. For every suicide among young people, there are at least 100 suicide att empts. Over 14 percent of high school students have considered suicide, and almost 7 percent have attempted it. Bully victims are between 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims, according to studies by Yale University * A study in Britain found that at least half of suicides among young people are related to bullying * 10 to 14 year old girls may be at even higher risk for suicide, according to the study above * According to statistics reported by ABC News, nearly 30 percent of students are either bullies or victims of bullying, and 160,000 kids stay home from school every day because of fear of bullying. Bullying Statistics,2009) In conclusion, being the victim of school bullying can have extreme long term effects on both the victim and the bully. Today’s technology has changed the way kids are getting bullied. Parents are watching for warning signs if their child is the victim of bullying or is the bully. There are many short-term and long-term effect s bullying can have on kids.Teachers are particularly watching interactions between kids. Some schools have created bully awareness days or weeks. School violence and suicide are on the rise, distinguishing bullying and being able to solve the problem proficiently, will be the best way to reduce an ongoing problem in the future. Preventing bulling is possible with enough contribution.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Critique of Centesimus Annus

I. Synopsis of the Pope's Encyclical Centesimus Annus, written by Pope John Paul II, commemorates and praises Pope Leo XIII's â€Å"Of New Things† (Rerum Novarum) written in 1891. Even after a hundred years, it still hasn't lost its vital influence. It is meant to honor the Church's â€Å"social doctrine† which had come from it. We should go through it once more so as to rediscover the wisdom behind the basic principles on how we should deal with the workers' condition. We should also look into the future to reawaken our responsibility, to proclaim the truth, and to communicate the life which is Christ. We should look at our own â€Å"new things† to bring forth in the Church's tradition, both â€Å"new† and â€Å"old† from the Lord's treasure. â€Å"Old† refers to defending the human person, protecting human dignity, building a more just society, and fighting injustice. â€Å"New† is analyzing recent history in order to understand the new requirements of evangelization. Chapter I – Characteristics of â€Å"Rerum Novarum† Towards the end of the last century, a new form of property had emerged – capital; and a new form of labor – labor for wages. Labor for wages was mainly profit- and efficiency-driven, rather giving high regard to the workers' sex, age or family situation. Human labor had become a commodity which could be freely bought and sold in the market, in accordance with the law of supply and demand. Workers were threatened by unemployment and lack of society security — leading to their starvation. Society has been divided into two classes. One promotes total economic freedom by appropriate laws while the other leans toward an organized and violent form of political and social structure. When people started to realize the injustice of the situation and a socialist revolution threatened to break out, Pope Leo XIII intervened by writing a document dealing with the systematic approach on the â€Å"condition of the workers†. Society was torn by the conflict between capital and labor — the worker question. The Pope wanted to restore peace, so he condemned class struggle. He formulated a doctrine regarding the Church's stand on specific human situations — both individual and communal, national and international. However, not all readily accepted the Church's right and duty in doing so. Many still believe that the Church should restrict itself to otherworldly salvation. The Pope's letter put the Church in a â€Å"citizenship status† amidst the changing realities of public life. The Church's social teaching is an essential part of the Christian message and there can be no genuine solution to the â€Å"social question† apart from the Gospel. Pope Leo XIII affirmed the dignity of work and the rights and dignity of workers, who work hard for self-preservation and for attaining their various needs. Work belongs to the vocation of every person by which one can realize oneself. Pope Leo XIII also stressed the right to â€Å"private property† — land ownership. Everyone has the right to possess things necessary for his and his family's development. Pope Leo XIII's letter affirms other undeniable rights such as the â€Å"natural human right† to form private or professional associations like trade unions. The Pope also acknowledges the limit on working hours, the right to legitimate rest, and the right of children and women to be treated differently with regard to the type and duration of work. He wrote of the right to a just wage that would be sufficient to support the worker and his family. This right cannot be left to the free consent of the parties. The Pope spoke of â€Å"distribute justice† whereby the public authority has the â€Å"strict duty† of providing for the workers' welfare, especially that of the poor because they have no other means apart from what they earn. He also affirms the right of the working class to fulfill their religious duties freely and avail of Sunday rest. Pope Leo XIII criticizes â€Å"socialism† and â€Å"liberalism.† Against socialism, he reaffirms the right to private property. As for liberalism, he states that the State should neither favor the rich nor neglect the poor. The defenseless and the poor have a claim to special consideration. The richer class can help itself while the poor have no resources of their own to do so and depend heavily on the State's assistance. This still applies today, with the new forms of poverty in the world. It does not depend on any ideology or political theory, but on the principle of solidarity, valid in the national and international order. Leo XIII calls it â€Å"friendship†, Pius XI calls it â€Å"social charity†; Paul VI, extending it even further, speaks of a â€Å"civilization of love.† In line with the Church's â€Å"preferential option for the poor,† Pope Leo XIII calls upon the State to intervene and remedy the condition of the poor. Though he does not expect the State to solve every social problem. The individual, family, and society should be protected by it and not be repressed by it. The point highlighted by Pope Leo XIII's encyclical and the Church's social doctrine is a correct view of the human person. God has imprinted man in his own image and likeness. Man's rights come from his dignity as a person, and not from the work he performs. Chapter II – Towards the â€Å"New Things† of Today The events of 1989 and 1990 proved that Pope Leo XIII's perception on the consequences of â€Å"real socialism† are accurate — that the worker would be the first to suffer, that it would distort the role of the state and create utter confusion in the community. Socialism considers the individual person as a mere molecule within the social organism to which he is completely subordinated. Man is no longer free to make a moral decision independently. This makes it difficult to realize his personal dignity and build a human community. The Christian vision is different: the social nature of a person is not totally fulfilled in the State, but is realized in various intermediary groups, beginning with the family and expands to include economic, social, political and cultural groups. Denial of God would mean complete disrespect for human dignity. The Pope does not intend to condemn every possible form of social conflict since such conflict is inevitable. However, Christians must take a stand in the â€Å"struggle for social justice.† He condemns â€Å"total war† — which has no respect for the dignity of others and of oneself. It attempts to dominate one's own side using any (and often reasonable) means to destroy the other side. Thus, class struggle in the Marxist sense and militarism have atheism and contempt for the human being as their common root. Rerum Novarum is against any form of State control that would reduce the citizen into a mere â€Å"cog† in the State machine. It is also opposed to a state that is not interested in the economic sector. The State has to determine the judicial framework to conduct economic affairs, so that the interests of one group do not overrule another. Society and the State should take the responsibility in protecting the workers against unemployment by establishing policies that would ensure the workers' balanced growth and full employment. They must protect the vulnerable immigrants and the marginalized from exploitation. â€Å"Humane† working hours and adequate leisure need to be guaranteed, along with the right to express one's own personality without sacrificing one's conscience or personal dignity. The State must try to achieve these goals in accordance with the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity. Indirectly by subsidiarity — by creating favorable conditions for the free exercise of economic activity; directly by solidarity — by defending the weakest and ensuring the necessary minimum support for the unemployed. The encyclical and the subsequent social teaching of the Church influenced numerous reforms in the years bridging the 19th and 20th centuries. Reforms were carried out partly by States and achieved through workers' movements which include Christians who established the producers', consumers', and credit cooperatives and promoted general education, professional training, and new forms of participation in the life of the workplace and society. Lack of respect for human dignity led to the tragic wars which ravaged Europe and the world between 1914 and 1945. Hatred and resentment built on injustices on the international level made these cruel wars possible. Though weapons have remained silent in Europe since 1945, true peace, which entails the removal of the causes of war and genuine reconciliation between people, has not yet been achieved. Half of Europe fell under a Communist dictatorship, while the other half is trying to defend itself. They use science and technology for creating instruments of war. Power alliances fought and caused enormous bloodshed in different places. Extremist groups got themselves armed; those in favor of peaceful solutions remained isolated or fell as victims. Following World War II, Third World countries became militarized. Terrorism spread and the whole world was threatened by an atomic war. Though new ideas about peace and war started to stir people's consciences, the threat of Communist totalitarianism distracted people's attention and provoked different responses. Some countries made a positive effort to rebuild a democratic society inspired by social justice. Others set up systems of â€Å"national security† opposing Marxism, but risked destroying the very freedom and values of the person for which they are defending. Another response came from the affluent/consumer society, which seeks to defeat Marxism by showing how a free market society can achieve a greater satisfaction of material human needs than Communism, while equally overlooking spiritual values. â€Å"Decolonization† became widespread. These countries, however remained in the hands of large foreign companies which are not committed to the development of the host country. They lack competent leadership that would be able to successfully integrate all tribal groups into genuine national communities. The horrors of the WWII and a lively sense of human rights led to the formation of the United Nations Organization. Deeper awareness on the rights of individuals and the rights of nations shifted the focus of the social question from the national to the international level. But UN has yet to establish effective means for resolving international conflicts. Chapter III – The Year 1989 In the 1980's, oppressive regimes fell in Latin America, Africa, and Asia mainly due to the violation of workers' rights — the oppressed working people recovered and rediscovered the principles of the Church's social teaching. A second factor in this crisis was due to the technical inefficiency of the economic system which spans violation in both cultural and national dimension. We can understand a human being more completely when we place him within the cultural context — through language, history, and the position he takes towards the fundamental life events. When these differences are overlooked, the culture and moral life of nations deteriorate. The main cause of this collapse was the reaction of the younger generations to the spiritual void brought by atheism. The youth did not find any sense of direction until they rediscovered the roots of their national culture and the person of Christ. Marxism promised to uproot the need for God from the human heart, throwing the heart into confusion. The struggle which led to the changes of 1989 were born of prayer. Humankind, created for freedom, bears the wound of original sin, which draws persons to evil and puts them in constant need of redemption. This shows that the human person tends towards good but is also capable of evil. We must not confuse political society with the Kingdom of God. It is only God who will do the Final Judgment. The Kingdom of God, being â€Å"in† the world without being â€Å"of† the world, throws a light on society, calling everyone, especially the laity, to infuse human reality with the Gospel. The Church encountered a workers' movement that had been partly under the dominance of Marxism for almost a century. Workers found their consciences, in their demand for justice and recognition of the dignity of work, in conformance to the Church's social teaching. The crisis of Marxism does not rid the world of the injustices on which it thrived. To those looking for a new theory, the Church offers her teaching, as well as her concrete commitment and material assistance in the struggle against marginalization and suffering. Beyond an impossible compromise between Marxism and Christianity, the Church reaffirms integral human liberation with consequences important for the countries of the Third World, searching for their own path to development. The second consequence concerns the European people. Many individual, social, regional and national injustices were committed during the Communism years; thus there is great risk that such conflicts would re-occur. We need to unite international structures that would mediate the conflicts between nations and reach for a peaceful settlement. A patient material and moral reconstruction is necessary. The fall of Marxism and the end of the world's division highlight our interdependence. Peace and prosperity belong to the whole human race and cannot be achieved if attained at the cost of other people and nations. The real post-war period had just begun in some countries in Europe. Their predicament was brought about by the tragic situation imposed upon them. The countries responsible for that situation owe them a debt in justice. This need should not diminish the willingness to sustain and assist the countries of the Third World, which often suffer even more. Priorities have to be redefined. Enormous resources could be mobilized by disarming the huge military machines built by East and West for conflict. These resources could become even more abundant if we found a way of resolving conflicts peacefully. A change of mentality is necessary — wherein the poor is no longer seen as a burden but instead as people seeking to share the right in enjoying material goods and make good use of their capacity for work so that we can create a just and prosperous world for all. Development must be understood as something fully human, not as something merely material. Its main purpose is the enhancement of everyone's capacity to respond to God's call. Recognition of the rights of the human conscience serves as the foundation of truly free political order. We must reaffirm this principle for the following reasons: some dictatorships have not yet been overcome; in the developed countries, the promotion of and demand for instant gratification devalue respect for human rights and values; and in some countries, new forms of religious fundamentalism deny minority groups their rights to know and live the truth. Chapter IV – Private Property and the Universal Destination of Material Goods The Church teaches that the possession of material goods is not an absolute right, and that there are certain limits to that right. Man should not consider material possessions as his own but as common to all. Private property also has a social function based on the law of the common purpose of goods. Access to work and land serves as the basis of every human society. In the past, the earth was the primary factor of wealth; today, the role of human work has become an important factor for producing nonmaterial and material wealth. Work â€Å"with† and â€Å"for† others depends largely on insight into the productivity of the earth and knowledge of our human needs. Today, the possession of know-how, technology, and skill have become as important as land. The wealth of industrialized nations is based more on the ownership of technology than on possession of natural resources. Another important source of wealth is the ability to foresee the needs of others and satisfy those needs. This often requires the cooperation of many people working towards a common goal. Skills in organizing, planning, timing, and management are also sources of wealth. The role of discipline, creativity, initiative, and entrepreneurial ability, is evident. This process reaffirms the stand of Christianity: next to the earth, humanity's principal resource is the person himself. Once the decisive factor of production was land; then it was capital; now it is the human being. Many are faced with the impossibility of acquiring the needed knowledge to take their place in the working world. They are exploited or marginalized and they cannot keep up with new forms of production and organization. In their quest for wealth, they flock towards Third World cities only to find that there is no room for them. Sometimes, there are even attempts to eliminate them through population control. Many others struggle to earn a bare minimum in inhumane conditions. Those cultivating land are excluded from land ownership and are practically slaves with no land, no material goods, no knowledge, no training. Some development programs have been set up, and the countries that managed to gain access to the international market in this way have suffered less from stagnation and recession than those who isolated themselves. Those who fail to keep up with the times — such as the elderly, the women, and the youth – are often marginalized. They are incapable of finding their place in society and are classified as part of the so-called Fourth World. The free market appears to be the most efficient tool for utilizing resources and responding to needs. But this holds true only for those who have the purchasing power and who those whose resources are marketable. Justice and truth demand that basic human needs should be met and that none should be left to die. The possibility of surviving and making a contribution to the common good is something which is due to the person as a person. In the Third World context, Pope Leo XIII's objectives are yet to be met. Trade unions and other worker's organizations find here a wide range of opportunities for commitment and effort for the sake of justice. It is right to speak of a struggle against an unjust economic system that does not uphold the priority of the human being over capital and land. The alternative to it is not a socialist system that leads to state capitalism, but a society with free work, enterprise, and participation that is in favor of a market which guarantees the basic needs of the whole society. Profit is a regulator of the life of a business but is not the sole indicator of a firm's condition. There are other equally important factors to be considered — such as human and moral factors. After the fall of â€Å"real socialism†, capitalism is not the only economic alternative left. Individuals and nations need the basic things to enable them to share in development. Stronger nations must assist weaker ones, weaker nations must use the opportunities offered. Foreign debts affect these efforts. The principle that debts should be paid remains, but should not be asked for at the cost of the hunger and at the price of unbearable sacrifice of the people. There is the need to lighten, defer, or even cancel the debts, to let people subsist and progress. In advanced economics, quality is more important than quantity — the quality of the goods to be produced and consumed, the quality of the services to be enjoyed, the quality of the environment and of life in general. Hence the phenomenon of consumerism arises. Appealing to human instinct only may create lifestyles and consumer attitudes that are damaging to spiritual and physical health. The educational and cultural formation of consumers and producers and of the mass media are urgently needed, as well as the intervention of public authority. An example of false consumption is drug abuse. This implies a serious malfunction in the social system, a destructive â€Å"reading† of human needs, and the idle filling of a spiritual void. Same is true with that of pornography and other exploitative consumerism. It is not wrong to want to improve our lives; it is wrong to seek a lifestyle which is presumably better when it is directed towards what one â€Å"has,† instead of what one â€Å"is.† Even the decision to invest in one way rather than another is a moral and cultural . Consumerism also raises the ecological issue. Humankind is consuming the resources of the earth and life in an excessive and disordered way, while neglecting the earth's own needs and God-given purpose. Humanity today must be conscious of its duties and obligations towards future generations. Aside from the concern on the destruction of our natural environment and the threat of extinction of our various animal species, we must also safeguard the moral conditions of our â€Å"human ecology†. We must use earth with respect to the original good purpose of which it was given by God. Urbanization and work can give rise to â€Å"structures of sin†. Courage and patience would be needed to destroy such structures and replace them with more authentic forms of community life. The first and fundamental structure for a â€Å"human ecology† is the family, founded on marriage, in which the mutual gift of self as husband and wife creates an environment in which children can be born and develop their potentialities, become aware of their dignity and prepare to face their unique and individual destiny. Too often life is considered to be a series of sensations rather than as something to be accomplished. The result is a lack of freedom to commit oneself to another person and to bring children into this world. This leads people to consider children as one of the many â€Å"things† which an individual can have or not have as they please. The family is sacred; it is the heart of the culture of life. The Church denounces the limitation, suppression or destruction of the sources life — including abortion, systematic anti-child-bearing campaigns, and chemical warfare. The State is responsible for defending and preserving the common goods such as natural and human environments. Relying on market forces alone will not suffice. Such mechanisms carry the risk of an â€Å"idolatry† of the market which ignores the existence of goods which are not just mere commodities. Marxism blamed capitalist societies for commercializing and alienating the human being. This censure is based on misconception of alienation — the remedy of which is collectivism, but this only further aggravated the situation. Alienation is still a reality in the West, because of consumerism, that does not help one appreciate one's authentic personhood and because of work, which shows interest only in profit, and none in the workers, considering them to be mere means. The way out of this deadlock is to reconsider the Christian vision of the human person and its â€Å"capacity for transcendence.† A human society is both alienated and alienating if its organization, production, and consumption make transcendence more difficult. A person who is concerned solely with possessing and enjoying and is no longer able to control his instincts and passions cannot be free, Obedience to the truth about God and humankind is the first condition of freedom. After the failure of Communism, should capitalism be the goal for Eastern Europe and the Third World? The answer is complex. If â€Å"capitalism† meant a market or free economy that recognizes the role of business, the market, private property, the resulting responsibility for the means of production, as well as free human creativity — then the answer is â€Å"yes.† If it meant a system in which economic, religious, and ethical freedom are denied, then the answer is â€Å"no.† Marxism failed, but marginalization and exploitation remain. The collapse of communism is not enough to change these conditions. A radically capitalist system might not even try to solve them. The Church has no models to offer as effective models only develop out of concrete situations. Instead, the Church offers its social teaching as an indispensable and ideal orientation. It insists on the right of workers to be respected and to be involved in the life of industrial enterprises so that, in a certain sense, they â€Å"work for themselves.† The relationship between private property and the universal destination of material wealth has to be reestablished. By means of his work a person commits himself, not only for his own sake but also for others and with others — their families, communities, nations, and, ultimately for all humanity. They collaborate with suppliers and customers in a continuously expanding chain of solidarity. Ownership is just if it serves a useful work; it is unjust when it is used to hinder others, or to break the solidarity among workers to gain profit. The obligation to earn one's bread presumes the right to do so. A society that denies this right cannot be justified, nor can it attain social peace. Chapter V – State and Culture Pope Leo XIII speaks of organizing a society whereby there is a balance of these three powers- legislative, executive, and judicial. Marxist-Leninism contradicted this by saying that people who have more knowledge than others should rule others in an absolute way. Totalitarianism rejected the authority of the Church and attempts to destroy her. By defending its own freedom, the Church also defended the human person. The Church values democracy and cannot encourage the formation of narrow ruling groups that would use the power of the State for their own intentions. Authentic democracy requires a State ruled by law, true education and formation, participation and shared responsibility. Democracy does not mean that there is no ultimate truth. The Church is aware of the danger of fanaticism and fundamentalism. Christian truth is not an ideology; it knows that human life is realized in history, and it always respects human freedom. Freedom attains its full development only by accepting the truth. The democratic ideal prevails today, so does the attention to human rights. That is why, we must stress the importance of these rights: the right to life, that of a child to develop in the mother's womb from the moment of conception, to live in a united family, to education, to work and support oneself and one's dependents, to establish a family freely, to have and to rear children, to live in the truth of one's faith. Not all these rights are being respected though, even in countries practicing democracy. Sometimes certain demands are not met for narrow opportunistic, electoral, or financial reasons. This leads to distrust and apathy and inability to see any issue within the framework of a coherent vision of the common good. Market economy cannot be run in an institutional, juridical, or political vacuum: the State has its role to play, guaranteeing personal freedom, a stable currency, and efficient public services. Lack of stability, corruption, improper ways of growing rich, and speculation hinder development and social order. The State has to intervene when monopolies hinder development; it can substitute its own services when certain sectors of business are too weak to render the services needed for the common good. Those interventions should only be brief so as to avoid removing from society and business tasks that belong to them. The â€Å"principle of subsidiarity† must be respected: â€Å"A community of a higher order should not interfere with the life of a community of a lower order, taking over its functions.† In case of need it should, rather, support the smaller community and help to coordinate its activity with activities in the rest of society for the sake of the common good. Not doing this leads to a loss of human energy, an increase of bureaucratic agencies, and an increase in costs. The Church has always been present and active among the needy, offering them material assistance in ways that neither humiliate nor reduce them to mere objects of assistance. To overcome today's individualistic mentality, a concrete commitment to solidarity and charity is necessary and this should begin in the family. The State should create social policies with family as their main focus — to assist the family with adequate resources for bringing up their children and looking after the elderly, thus strengthening the relations between generations. The culture of a nation is born, generation after generation, from the open search from truth. The heritage of values have always been challenged by the young — not in order to destroy or reject it, but to make it more real, relevant, and personal. When a culture becomes inward-looking, disregarding the truth about man, it is heading for its end. The first and foremost task for the adequate formation of a culture happens within a person's heart. Building one's own future depends on the understanding a person has of himself and of his own destiny. The Church contributes at this level to true culture, promoting peace, preaching how creation is placed in human hands to make it fruitful and more perfect, preaching how the Son of God saved and united us, making us responsible for all of mankind. Pope Benedict XV and his successors recognize the negative impact of war on people's lives and repeated the cry: â€Å"War, never again!†. Just as personal revenge has given way to the rule of law within states, so has the time come for a similar step to be taken at an international level, not forgetting that at the root of war and conflict there are usually serious grievances. Another name for peace is development. Together we are responsible for avoiding war; together we are responsible for promoting development. It should be possible to organize at an international level the kind of solid economy that is possible in an individual society. The poor-whether individuals or nations- need to be provided realistic opportunities. This calls for a concerted worldwide effort to promote development which may mean important changes in established lifestyles, limiting waste of environmental and human resources. It also means utilizing the new and spiritual responses of peoples who today are at the margin of the international community, thus enriching the family of nations. Chapter VI – The Human Being Is the Way of the Church The Church is not interested in imposing her own vision. Her sole purpose has been care and responsibility for the human person who has been entrusted to her by Christ. The human sciences and philosophy are helpful in explaining how this concrete person is involved in a complex network of relationships within modern times. Faith reveals our real identity. That is why the Church concerns itself with the rights of the individual, the working class, the family and education, the duties of the State, the ordering of national and international society, economic life, culture, war and peace, and respect for human life from conception till death. The Church receives â€Å"the meaning of the person† from Divine Revelation. The theological dimension is needed both for interpreting and solving present-day problems in human society. This is in contrast with both the â€Å"atheistic† solution, which deprives humankind of one of its basic dimensions and to permissive and consumerist solutions. In the Church's viewpoint, the social message of the Gospel must not be treated as a â€Å"theory† but rather a basis for action. Through time, this message has gained more credibility because of its logic and consistency. Love for others, and especially for the poor, is made concrete by promoting justice. It is not a matter of giving from one's own surplus, but of helping the entire people. This requires a change of lifestyle, a reorientation of ourselves and our organizations toward the whole of the human family. Today we are facing â€Å"globalization† of the economy which can create unusual opportunities for greater prosperity. It asks for effective international agencies to coordinate the powerful nations and take into account the weaker ones- which even the most powerful state on earth would not be able to do on its own. The gift of grace is needed, a newness that is experience by following Jesus. Faith not only helps people to find solutions; it makes even situations of suffering humanly bearable, so that in these situations people will not become lost or forget their dignity and vocation. The Church's social teaching should begin a practical and scientific dialogue at the crossroads where it meets the world as it is. Solving serious national and international problems in the world calls for specific ethical and religious values. This encyclical, while looking at the past, is directed towards the future. The intention is to prepare us for that moment, with God's help. II. What does the Pope's message mean to me By looking back at history, we can derive lots of valuable lessons and learn from our own mistakes as well as from the mistakes of others. In this new encyclical, the Holy Father provides us with reasons to hope in a modern society which would obey the Church' s social teachings. The Pope also gives us new reasons and motivation to further evangelize the world. In Centesimus Annus, two classes of society have been identified — one of which exercises total economic freedom by appropriate laws, and the other makes use of an organized and violent form of political and social structure. Pope Leo XIII criticizes â€Å"socialism† and â€Å"liberalism.† Against socialism, he reaffirms the right to private property. As for liberalism, he states that the state should neither favor the rich nor neglect the poor. The defenseless and the poor have a claim to special consideration. The State should exercise a â€Å"preferential option for the poor†. I think the best way would be something in between socialism and liberalism. This refers to exercising political intervention in market structures. The framework is such that in a free-market economic system, competition is allowed, but state intervention should come should the control of the market be deemed necessary for the benefit of the common good, i.e. provide the greatest utility for all. I agree with Pope John Paul II that the new source of economic wealth is no longer â€Å"land† nor â€Å"capital†. It is a combination of new skills and talents. These skills include the knowledge of new technologies, entrepreneurship, foreseeing and meeting others' needs, organizing, planning, and management. Such talents need be polished through discipline, creativity, initiative, and courage. With regards to Human Work, it can only be understood from a â€Å"personalist† point of view — through the exercise of man's free will and intellect. This brings dignity to work. Pope Leo XIII writes about the condition of workers: dignity of work, dignity of workers, right to private property, right to form private associations, limit on working hours, right to legitimate rest, right of children and women to fair treatment based on their capabilities, right to a just wage, distributive justice, and the right to fulfill religious duties freely It is true that man's rights come from his dignity as a person, and not from the work he performs. Work belongs to the vocation of every person by which one can realize oneself. It doesn't matter what type of work we perform as long as we do them with pride and conviction. On Family, I agree that it is the heart of the culture of life. The family is the real sanctuary of life. It is the fundamental structure for â€Å"human ecology†. It is from our family that we first learned of ideas about truth and goodness, what it means to love and be loved, and what it means to be a person. On Solidarity, it is a moral expression of our interdependence. It reminds us that we are one family regardless of race, nationality, and economic power. Pope Leo XIII also emphasized the value of quality of quantity. I think this argument is valid. It is of no use for a person to acquire so many goods if he cannot enjoy them for long because of their poor quality. It is of no meaning for a person to live for a very long time if his life is of no quality – he doesn't use it to his fullest to enhance his personal growth and the growth of his neighbors. Indeed, this encyclical has shared to us so many insights which are worth reflecting and applying to our daily lives. We must make the most of the teachings which our Church leaders has diligently compiled through time.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Listening Log (Classical Music) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Listening Log (Classical Music) - Essay Example The harmonies alternate between tonic and dominant as the volume swells. This composition continues in a continuous increase in pianistic bravura and energy highlighted in dominant and tonic harmonies (Aichberger & Roenneke 7:49). There are modulations that are restricted to C sharp major and the softened median A major. The composition at 6mins 10 secs to 7 mins 20 secs expresses a jubilant and playful theme by the swift tones. An instance of calm mood exists at 8mins 43 secs in the F sharp minor key that is overtaken by the final hurly-burly sound. As the music comes closer to a conclusion, there is a massive crescendo of prestissimo octaves, going up and down the whole area of the keyboard that finalizes the piece in a splendid way (Aichberger & Roenneke 9:42). In conclusion, the use of different keys makes this piece unique; in that the dominant and tonic harmonies are utilized to intensify the first theme of somber and dark mood. To highlight the second theme, minor tonality is used to bring contrast to the second theme, which is jubilant. The keys alternate in a clear manner that portrays the great classical music of

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Stem Cell Research Legislaion Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Stem Cell Legislaion - Research Paper Example However, actual research on stem cells began in the 1960s and the 1970’s when treatment of many immunodeficiency conditions and leukemia was sought from stem cells (UK Stem Cell Foundation 2011). In general, at that time, since the scope of stem cell research was huge and could also be life-saving in certain circumstances, people recommended using such technology. Even today, several diseases such as cancer, heart disease, etc, are incurable and a stem cell research may offer a chance. Not only are the people looking towards the government to permit the use of this technology, but also federal funding is being sought to sponsor this technology. In one patient who was suffering from HIV/AIDS, the use of stem cells from a person who had a resistant gene variant helped the patient to stop taking antiviral medications. However, the use of embryonic stem cells poses a lot of ethical issues as they have the potential to form life (Research America 2012). Stem cell research is not pr o-life and often the promises that they offer are not evidence-based and only distance possibilities. No cure for any disease has been obtained from stem cell research nor has this form of research proceeded beyond laboratory animals. When George W Bush had taken the office in 2001, he enacted a ban on stem cell research with an intention of ending federal funding on it as it involved destroying human life. Here since human life was being used merely for the sake of experimentation and harvesting body parts, the Congress sought for the ban on stem cells (Wertz, 2002). However, the Congress sought the use of stem cells without destroying embryonic cells that had the potential to transform into human beings. In 2004, the California Institute for Regenerative medicine was setup in order to regulate the research findings and the research facilities. Institutions seeking financing fro stem cell research have to approach the California Institute for Regenerative medicine. In 2007, the Bus h Administration sought the reversal of the earlier policy which sought to inhibit the federal spending on stem cell obtained from human embryos. In 2009, Barack Obama signed the executive order that permitted stem cell research on human embryos. In 2011, greater clarification on the federal funding was being sought as federal funds could only be spent on researching stem cells and not destroying the human embryos (American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011). 2. How does it compare to comparable statutes in the rest of the world? The US is not the only nation to have a problem with regulating stem cell research and many other nations including the EU may ban stem cell research derived from embryonic stem cells. Many of the governments across the world have been funding stem cells research. In China, stem cell therapy centers are present which uses stem cells from umbilicus or autologously generated for treating several disorders such as Parkinsonism and cerebral plays. In Australia, informed consent is required from the couple undergoing IVF for stem cell research and only those embryonic cells that are going to be wasted can be used for stem cell research. During clinical research trials, the embryonic stem cells donated by the users can be used only after taking informed consent. Any embryo that is fertilized within a women’

Oedipus and Creon Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Oedipus and Creon - Essay Example The trust Oedipus has for Creon is obvious from the first time he is mentioned. Oedipus explains, "I have sent Menoikeus' son, Creon, my own wife's brother, forth alone To Apollo's House in Delphi" (Sophocles 6). The city is in despair and the oracle is Oedipus's last hope, so he sends his most trusted companion on this important journey. Oedipus's faith in him is obvious, and Creon really seems to warrant this trust. His sensitivity to Oedipus is apparent when he says, "Shall I speak now, with all these pressing close, Or pass within" (Sophocles 7). Creon tactfully states he would not openly express anything that Oedipus would prefer to remain private. As Creon relates the news he's heard from the oracle, Oedipus hangs on every word, questions him about the particulars, and generally believes the story. At the scene's end, he has accepted everything Creon has told him, and announces his intent to act upon this news, saying, "It falls on me then. I will search and clear This darkness " (Sophocles 10). On Creon's advice, he also summons the seer, Teiresias, for further instructions. There is no doubt of the trust that exists in their relationship. Once Teiresias enters the picture, things begin to change. Threatened by the accusation, Oedipus grows paranoid and his relationship with Creon grows strained. The news is so awful and amazing that Oedipus cannot believe it. It's easier to suspect foul play, and his suspicions fall immediately on the man who stands to gain the most from his downfall. He asks Teiresias, "Ha! Creon!--Is it his or thine, this plot" (Sophocles 23) and refuses to believe it when the seer insists it is not a plot at all. "For this crown Creon the stern and true, Creon mine own Comrade, comes creeping in the dark to ban And slay me" (Sophocles 23), Oedipus insists. He insults Creon, calling him, "assassin" (Sophocles 30) and "robber of my crown" (Sophocles 30) as well as a coward, a snake, and an idiot. Creon defends himself against false charges, leading to a long argument. Eventually, even his patience wears out, and he tells Oedipus, "I see thou wilt not think" (Sophocles 35). The disagreement degenerat es into name-calling; Oedipus will not see reason and Creon will not admit to something he has not done. Only late in the play, when the shepherds have produced the evidence that convinces Oedipus of his crimes, does he realize that he has wronged his brother-in-law. Jocasta is dead, Oedipus has put out his own eyes, and Creon has returned, "Not to make laughter, Oedipus, nor cast Against thee any evil of the past" (Sophocles 81). This is true compassion on Creon's part. Not only has he been wronged, but he has learned that Oedipus is the cause of all the turmoil in Thebes, including his sister's death, and still he is kind. Even Oedipus doubts that Creon can deal kindly with him, saying, "How make him trust me more He hath seen of late So vile a heart in me, so full of hate" (Sophocles 81). Showing the same sensitivity as earlier in the play, when he asked whether he should make a public announcement of his findings, he offers Oedipus privacy, saying, "Quick within! Guide him. -- The ills that in a house have been They of the house alone should know or hear" (Sophocles 81). Creon's co mpassion is further demonstrated when Antigone and Ismene enter, and Oedipus shows his gratitude, saying, "Creon of his grace Hath brought my two, my dearest, to this

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Marketing Survey for Gourmet Cupcakes Research Paper

Marketing Survey for Gourmet Cupcakes - Research Paper Example The research report author recommends that the Gourmet Cupcakes Bakery undertakes an expansion strategy into the key markets of Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, China, Japan and South Africa. Opportunites exist to position the product as a luxury item in these markets. 4. Introduction The purpose of the following report is to put forward a study that gives quantitative insight into current consumer response toward the product offering, gourmet cupcakes, from the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery. The report intends to identify current and future opportunities for the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery to expand its operations beyond its present location in the United States to an international market. The report also points to a secondary opportunity for the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery to co-brand with specialty food stores in the United States and internationally to build sales and develop a strong brand reputation. To date the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery has focused its operations exclu sively in the United States market. However, international demand for the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery product can be stimulated through a series of strategic partnerships and co-branding initiatives. Key target markets exist in Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, China, Japan and South Africa. The report seeks to highlight future opportunities that serve the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery strategic vision. In order to accomplish the stated goals of the project, the research report author employed the web based Qualtrics survey software to create an online survey of consumer responses to the current gourmet cupcake product offerings produced by the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery. The Qualtrics software allowed the research report author to... The report intends to identify current and future opportunities for the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery to expand its operations beyond its present location in the United States to an international market. The report also points to a secondary opportunity for the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery to co-brand with specialty food stores in the United States and internationally to build sales and develop a strong brand reputation. To date the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery has focused its operations exclusively in the United States market. However, international demand for the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery product can be stimulated through a series of strategic partnerships and co-branding initiatives. Key target markets exist in Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, China, Japan and South Africa. The report seeks to highlight future opportunities that serve the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery strategic vision. In order to accomplish the stated goals of the project, the research report author employed the w eb based Qualtrics survey software to create an online survey of consumer responses to the current gourmet cupcake product offerings produced by the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery. The Qualtrics software allowed the research report author to perform quantitative statistical analysis, create a survey database and export the results to a simple Excel document for further examination. The result is a comprehensive and thorough analysis of consumer purchasing intention for the product offered by the Gourmet Cupcake Bakery, using its present branding strategy.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

When will employers require cognitive augmentation of their workers Essay

When will employers require cognitive augmentation of their workers - Essay Example A driver of cognitive augmentation on the social side is the growing acceptance of technological augmentation of human capabilities, already present in 2015, and certainly will continue to accelerate and become commonplace by 2040. This will be to the extent of people becoming used to cognitive augmentation as a way of life. Current forays into device augmentation of reality, such as Google Glass, are testaments to this. The certainty and the level of impact are high, given the current high rate of social adoption of such new cognitive augmentation devices, with the smart phones arguably an early form of a cognitive augmentation device already prevalent worldwide (Pang, 2014). The on-going shift in the major economies, such as the American economy, towards more substantial industries that require high levels of scientific expertise, such as biotech, will certainly propel industries to require cognitive augmentation for workers. The certainty and level of impact is high, judging from the permanent nature of the shift and the need for more highly intelligent workers by 2040 (Egan, 2015). Climate change will be a driver of change towards cognitive computing in the workplace by 2040. The problems relating to climate change are persistent and long-range, requiring the development of new answers, new ways of living, and new ways of adapting. This means that workers will be required to make use of augmented cognition technologies to aid in this large task. The level of certainty and the level of impact are both high, judging from the high impact nature of the problem of climate change, and the urgency of the tasks relating to solving the problem (Gilpin, 2014). Reed, B. (2015). Bill Gates is the latest brilliant person to warn artificial intelligence could kill us all. Yahoo! News. Retrieved from

Monday, September 23, 2019

Fashion Theory And Fashion Practice Literature review

Fashion Theory And Fashion Practice - Literature review Example This paper focuses on the fashion industry. Fashion practice wholly depends on the ability to establish brands that meet the fashion needs of a particular target market during a particular era. For this reason, companies such as Coco Chanel and Yves Saint-Laurent keep a close tab on the changing preferences of the clients with time, hence are able to provide what the clients exactly need (Myers et al. 2011). Some of the towns that have been known for their fashion and have well-established international fashion houses include Paris, Milan, London and New York (Scaraboto & Fischer 2014). These cities house some of the greatest fashion companies in the world; the residents in these cities demonstrate a culture that appreciates fashion and art, hence the reason for the flourishing fashion wear industry. Fashion weeks are usually organized for the designers to display new fashion collections. This has forced the designers to go an extra mile in as far as creativity and innovation in the fashion industry is concerned. In conclusion, fashion is a habitual trend or popular practice that is time-bound and keeps changing depending on age, gender, race, culture, and religion, among other influential factors within the target market. this is the reason that makes the fashion industry a very expansive and dynamic sector that requires a very talented and creative labor force that has the ability to think beyond the obvious and design unique styles that will keep customers coming for more as is sufficiently exhibited by in the blooms bury journals.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ford Motor Company Essay Example for Free

Ford Motor Company Essay Strengths Ford Motor Company is a Multi international Company with 90 plant and facilities selling vehicles in 200 markets. It is the second biggest plant in the world, with approximately 345,000 employees The Ford Motor Company is the Fifth largest vehicle manufacturer in the world and the second in the U.S. with a total (Sales 2010) of 4,988,031 vehicles manufactured including Cars, land craft vehicles (LCV), Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) and Heavy Buses. Ford Motor merges with Hertz Rent-A-Car, the worlds leading vehicle renting organization, operates from approximately 8,100 locations in 143 countries worldwide. Ford Motor Company is in ten place in 2011 Fortune 500 list (Us), with Revenues of (Millions) 128,954.0 and Profits of (Millions) 6,561.0 and in the 2011 Global 500 list, Ford Motors in twenty fifth place. †¢ Ford is a Household name brand †¢ Has physical presence in all major continents †¢ Ford motor credit company helps finance, lease and sell insurance customers †¢14,400 international patents, copyrights and trademarks †¢2nd highest market share in truck sales †¢Sponsor special-rate financing programs available only through Ford Credit Programs increase Ford Credits financing volume and share of financing sales of their vehicles Weaknesses Ford Motors doesn’t have a fuel efficient stander pickup or cargo van, compared to Chevrolet Silverado (Pickup) that gives 20mpg in city and 23mpg in highway and the Chevrolet Express (Van) that gives a 15mpg in city and 20mpg in highway. †¢ Durable good- in rough economical times it is not necessary to replace †¢ If consumers continue to demand vehicles that are relatively large, have high performance, and/or are feature-laden, while regulatory standards require the production of vehicles that are smaller and more economical, the mismatch of supply and demand would have a negative  effect on profitability †¢ Market share has declined in many regions of the world over the last year. Overall market share in the United States, including PAG-brand vehicles, has declined in each of the past five years, from 20.5% in 2003 to 15.6% in 2007 †¢Stock shares have declined, resulting with volume reductions have had an adverse impact on our results of operations Ford Motor warned its European operations may lose $500 million to $600 million this year. Opportunities Innovation technologies, Sync with My ford touch is a combine technology, that help and assists drivers for a more comfortable drive experience. The Sync technology consist in integrating Bluetooth- enable cell phones and Mp3 players in to the car, providing hand free call and music selection capabilities using voice activate commands. My ford touch replaces many traditional buttons with clear, colorful and user friendly LCD screens. †¢ Block Exemption Regulation (Europe) Makes it easier for a dealer to display and sell multiple brands in one store (Ford, Lincoln, Mercury) without the need to maintain separate facilities †¢Increasing presence in China, with more investment in manufacturing capacity, introduction of new products and expansion of distribution channel †¢Opened a second assembly plant and new engine plant located in Nanjing, China Initial capacity of the plant was approximately 160,000 units annually, boosting total annual passenger car production capacity in China to more than 410,000 vehicles Operates a purchasing office in China to procure components for operations outside of China Threats †¢ Decline in overall market share due to Including increased competition Industry shift away from traditionally stronger segments (e.g., traditional SUVs and full-size pickups) Reduced vehicle sales to daily rental companies †¢Decrease in commercial fleet sales reflected lower industry volume †¢Japanese and Korean manufacturers are increasing their production capacity in Europe Strength †¢ Ford Motor Company is a Multi international Company with 90 plant and facilities selling vehicles in 200 markets. It is the second biggest plant in the world, with approximately 345,000 employees. (http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/ford-diversity-commitment) , (http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=7670) †¢ The Ford Motor Company is the Fifth largest vehicle manufacturer in the world and the second in the U.S. with a total (Sales 2010) of 4,988,031 vehicles manufactured including Cars, land craft vehicles (LCV), Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) and Heavy Buses. (Oica.net, 2011) (http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/ranking-2010.pdf) †¢ Ford Motor diversity in Ford Credit is a subsidiary of The Ford Motor Company that finance vehicles to customer and dealers to support Ford Motor Company sales. They also provide financing on Lincoln vehicles, offering: competitive rates, innovative products, flexible terms (http://www.fordcredit.com/companyInfo/prof ile.jhtml) †¢ Ford Motor merges with Hertz Rent-A-Car, the worlds leading vehicle renting organization, operates from approximately 8,100 locations in 143 countries worldwide. †¢ Ford Motor Company is in ten place in 2011 Fortune 500 list (Us), with Revenues of (Millions) 128,954.0 and Profits of (Millions) 6,561.0 (http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2011/full_list/index.html) and in the 2011 Global 500 list, Ford Motors in twenty fifth place. (http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2011/full_list/index.html) Weakness †¢ Ford Explores rollover and firestone tires recalls controversy announced on August, 2000, approximately 14.4 million tires contain a safety-related defect. Harmed Ford brand image. (http://www.nhtsa.gov/PR/FirestoneRecall) †¢ Ford Motors doesn’t have a fuel efficient stander pickup or cargo van, compared to Chevrolet Silverado (Pickup) that gives 20mpg in city and 23mpg in highway and the Chevrolet Express (Van) that gives a 15mpg in city and 20mpg in highway. (http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/bestworstepatrucks.htm) †¢ Ford Motors only has seven subsidiaries, Lincoln, mercury, Mazda, Volvo, Jaguar, Land Rover, Aston Martin. Opportunities †¢ Fuel efficient cars, Ford Motor Company is launching the most fuel-efficient cars in the market. The All-new 2012 Ford Focus will be powered by a fuel-efficient 2.0-liter DOHC four-cylinder engine with twin independent variable camshaft timing (Ti-VCT) and direct gasoline injection that will deliver up to a projected 40 mpg highway. The combinations of these technologies helps to lower gas emission but, still have horse power. For a 4 cylinder 2.0 liter engines it is rated at 160 horse power and 146lbs of torque. (http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=33438) †¢ Big donator to charity and victims of natural disasters. October 27, 2000 Ford Motor Company will donate $1.4 million to the San Diego Environmental Foundation (SDEF) for the preservation, protection and enhancement of the San Eliot Lagoon Ecological Reserve, which is one of San Diegos and Southern Californias most precious and unique natural resources. (http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?ar ticle_id=6425) †¢ Innovation technologies, Sync with My ford touch is a combine technology, that help and assists drivers for a more comfortable drive experience. The Sync technology consist in integrating Bluetooth- enable cell phones and Mp3 players in to the car, providing hand free call and music selection capabilities using voice activate commands. My ford touch replaces many traditional buttons with clear, colorful and user friendly LCD screens. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Driving Technology, Blind Spot Information System (BLIS) gives out three warnings when a vehicle not visible or enters ones blinds spot. The signals consists in a Yellow light appears in the corresponding side view mirror, an audio alert and a message warning displayed.  (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Rear view camera and Forward Sensing System, helps drives to see on screen when parking in reverse. The Forward Sensing System helps to determine how close are the objects form the vehicle. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS). This technology consists in adapting to the road conditions and help drivers to compensate directional shifts caused by crowned roads surface or steady crosswinds. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Active Park Assistants uses ultrasonic based sensing system and EPAS for parallel parking. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Rain-Sensing Wipes has a optical sensor that auto adjust to the climate conditions. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) Power train and convenience †¢ Adaptive cruise control allows the vehicle to set and mating speed without using the pedals. It also has a radar- based system thats can monitor the vehicle in front up to 600 feet. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Easy fuel or cap less system helps drives when filling the car with gasoline a hassle-free, odor free, and have a more consistent seal compared to traditional manual cap.( http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Eco-Boost gains of up to 20 percent and reduction of CO2 emissions by as much as 15 percent compared with larger, less efficient engines. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) †¢ Dual-clutch Power Shift six-speed transmission combines the responsive performance and fuel economy of a manual gearbox with the convenience of a traditional automatic transmission. (http://media.ford.com/images/10031/Drive_Smart_HR.pdf) Threats †¢ Government regulations. Do to the pollution and the Global warming caused by the Co2, car manufactures are trying to develop fuel efficient cars. In Jul 29,2011 Major car developers and manufactures joined President  Obama to discusses the further in fuel economy and proposed a new Fuel-efficiency standers. Today’s stander is 27.3mpg by 2025 the stander should be at 54.5 mpg. Its estimated that this new â€Å"stander† will save a average of $8,000 on fuel bill per vehicle, and will reduce U.S. oil consumption by 2.2 billion barrels per day. (http://news.consumerreports.org/cars/2011/07/government-raises-fuel-economy-standards-to-545-mpg-by-2025.html) †¢ Change of oil price, is one of the most volatile components oil, is very heretical as it prices increases and decreases. Consumer are more aware that fuel efficient vehicle can guarantee more performance for their money. In 26-07-2011 oil crude open at $99.0 an close$99.6 (http://www.livecharts.co.uk/futures_commodities/oil_prices_historical.php) †¢ Increase of raw materials. This effects the manufacturing of the automobile if the steel components raises then the car will have to be a lot more expensive. According to the World Carbon Steel Transaction Prices in Mar,2011 medium steel sections were $719/Ton in April,2011 it was 926/Ton. (http://www.steelonthenet.com/price_info.html) †¢ Recession is another factor that Ford Motor Company has to battle. As the economy declines in activity, more people are not investing or spending their incomes in new vehicles. It is estimate that the US unemployment rates is at 13.9 million persons a (9.1 percent) http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm)

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Job Description: Operations Manager in Echocardiography Lab

Job Description: Operations Manager in Echocardiography Lab Based on the week 1 final project paper, the position for this assignment is the Operations Manager for the Echocardiography Lab. Job descriptions identify the key tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a position. They detail what, why, where, and how responsibilities are done (Flynn, Mathis, Jackson, Langan, 2006, p. 102). The general summary within a job description is a brief statement of general responsibilities and components that make the position unique from others. The essential functions section of a description is a set of precise statements specifying major tasks, duties, and responsibilities performed. The job specifications portion of the job description details specific qualifications needed to perform the job acceptably. This would include details such as required skills, education, experience, and physical requirements of the role (Flynn, Mathis, Jackson, Langan, 2006, p. 102). Standard and complete job descriptions can drive performance standards and competencies. They provide a platform to demonstrate what the position accomplishes and how performance is measured in relation to key areas of the job description. In fact, JCAHO standards require healthcare organizations to combine the job description with performance and competency assessment (Flynn, Mathis, Jackson, Langan, 2006, p. 103). If employees are familiar with the expectations, performance measurement, and required competencies, there is a far greater opportunity for satisfactory performance. The job description should be tailored to the specific need a position satisfies. The tasks to be performed and the outcome expected are pivotal. Critical competencies should include those that are integral for the job. They should reflect the ability to produce specific or minimum outcomes in a safe, timely manner (Patton, 2013, p 143). This ensures that every employee in the same role has a standard description and identical expectations. Each employee can then be gauged against those requirements. Position Overview: This role is responsible for coordinating the operations of allied health staff in the outpatient, inpatient setting for the echocardiography lab within the Division of Cardiology. The employee will manage the department in alignment institutional and division missions, visions, and objectives. This person will serves as a key member of the leadership team with a primary focus on planning and implementation of policies and systems. In addition, the position will require facilitates project management while leading a multidisciplinary team including financial analysis, problem solving, and team collaboration. This team member will regulate staffing in accordance with fluctuating workload. The position requires project management in support of institutional and divisional projects, staff recruitment, policy implementation, and serves as a primary resource for issues and communications. This person will performs duties independently and initiate sound judgment in handling a variety of management issues. Organizational Relationships: The hierarchy of this position is pretty straight forward. The operations manager reports to the Cardiology Medical Director and an Operations Administrator. Thus, there is physician and administrative oversight. Ultimately, the position would be directly responsible for several supervisors, including the managers of the outreach practice, education and quality, the program chair of the echocardiography school, the lab, and the administration office for the department. The position falls within the Cardiology Department, which is part of the Department of Medicine of the organization. Ultimately, Jeffrey Bolton, the Chief Administrative Officer and Dr. John Noseworthy, the President and CEO of Mayo Clinic are at the top of the organizational structure (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2013). Candidates will be required to work cooperatively with department/division leadership and multidisciplinary teams, supervisors, administrators, physicians, and personnel both w ithin and outside the organization. There is a number of staff that would directly report to this manager, including sonographers, nurses, administrative personnel, and various supervisors. Educational Requirements: The preferred educational background for this position is a Masters degree in Business or Healthcare field and two years healthcare management experience. Required Skills: Candidates should have strong leadership, team building, and problem-solving skills as well as demonstrated ability to work collaboratively with multiple disciplines. The candidate must have excellent communication, organizational and human relation skills. This position requires excellent decision-making and judgment capabilities. Candidates must have broad based knowledge of office support and computer systems along with software knowledge and installation. In addition, the candidate must have business acumen with experience with accounting practices for budgetary responsibilities. This job is unique based on the limited number of comparable echocardiography labs in the area and even the nation. There are certainly other management positions both within and outside the organization, but very few would provide the ability to manage such a world-class department. In addition, this position would provide a solid networking opportunity. The manager would have the opportunity to work alongside physicians and administrators, gain professional experience, and showcase skills. This position may be a on-the-job interview for future positions in the leadership hierarchy. The course text indicates that effective compensation programs should focus on four primary objectives, including legal compliance, cost effectiveness for the organization, equity for staff, and performance enhancement for the organization (Flynn et al., 2006). There are two components of any compensation package, direct and indirect. Direct compensation is essentially the pay for work achieved. Indirect compensation entails compensating employees with a tangible value without receiving monetary gain. Examples of indirect compensation are benefits such as health insurance, vacation pay, or retirement pension, which are provided to employees regardless of performance (Flynn et al., 2006). There must be a balance between compensation and cost that ensures competitiveness and rewards employees for experience, knowledge, skills, and performance. The organization should provide a comprehensive compensation package in order to recruit, retain, and reward performance. According to Hariharan (2014), a well-planned approach to recruitment will improve a healthcare organization’s leverage in recruiting the most talented individuals. Treating those employees with respect for the duration of their tenure will ensure retention. By recognizing what is important to a potential employee and offering competitive compensation and personal development opportunities, the organization can attract the best candidates and use the newfound intellectual capital to enhance organizational performance. Based on benchmarking similar positions within the organization and comparable academic institutions, the compensation package should be at the 50th percentile of the market. The salary range would be dependent on education, experience, and internal tenure. Preference for the position should be provided internally before the position is posted outside the organization. References: Flynn, W., Mathis, R. L, Jackson, J. H., Langan, P. L. (2006). HealthcareHuman Resource Management [VitalSouce bookshelf version] Retrieved fromhttp://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9781133614395/id/ch03 Hariharan, Selena,M.D., M.H.S.A. (2014). Physician recruitment and retention: A physicians perspective.Physician Executive,40(2), 44-6, 48. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1518114883?accountid=87314 Patton, M. T. (2013). Avoiding Common Job Description Mistakes.AMT Events,30(3), 142-144.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Persuasive essay on Hard Work -- Essays Papers

Hard work is challenging work. But why does it have to be challenging work? Because challenging work, when intelligently chosen, pays off. It’s the work that people of lesser character will avoid. And if you infer that I’m saying people who avoid challenging work have a character flaw, you’re right†¦ and a serious one at that. If you avoid challenging work, you avoid doing what it takes to succeed. To keep your muscles strong or your mind sharp, you need to challenge them. To do only what’s easy will lead to physical and mental flabbiness and very mediocre results, followed by a great deal of time and effort spent justifying why such flabbiness is OK, instead of stepping up and taking on some real challenges. Tackling challenges builds character, just as lifting weights builds muscle. To avoid challenge is to abandon one’s character development. Now it’s natural that we’ll tend to avoid what’s painful, so if we see challenge as purely painful, we’ll surely avoid it. But in so doing, we’re avoiding some very important character development, which by its very nature is often tremendou...

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Japanese culture Essay -- Essays Papers

Japanese culture The small island country of Japan is rich in a culture that has developed over thousands of years. It is very difficult to analyze another culture without some knowledge of that culture first. During my two year residency in Japan, my eyes were opened to the culture of Japan and its people and I grew to love it as much as my own. (The ideas expressed in this essay mainly consist of my own knowledge and observations of Japan). The Japanese are a very traditional people. But this should not be confused with a primitive people, because the Japanese are not primitive by most dictionaries' definitions of the word. Japan has been changing in recent years in its view of its own economy, in its social interactions, in its thoughts about religion, and in its overall view of its place in the world and among other nations. For the past decade, the Japanese economy has been one of the strongest and most stable economies in the world. In analyzing why it has been so successful, several factors must be considered. First, the education system of Japan is one of the highest ranked in the world. The reason for this is that Japanese children go to school and study more than students in most other countries. The school year lasts for 240 days and each school day is very long. Furthermore, most students go to "cram schools" to study even more after the regular school day is over. This is all in preparation for the college entrance exam (Morton, 251-255). Some people have also said that this prepares Japanese youth for their future in companies with jobs that require great dedication and 80 to 90 hour work weeks. This dedication of Japanese employees to their work contributes greatly to the strength of the economy of Japan. They feel like they are part of a big family (the company). Employees work together for the benefit of the company as a whole. They truly feel that their hard work and success contribute to the company's success and growth. Companies also have special programs and classes for the employees, who are the children, to make them feel at home. There are company athletic clubs and cultural classes, such as flower arrangement and the tea ceremony. Since everyone is a member of the "family" in Japan, decisions that the company must make are circulated among the lower echelons of the work force for their opinio... ...a well-organized priesthood. Although its view of the world is quite different than that of Shinto, the optimism that the two share causes them to mesh well. Christianity is also present in Japan, but only about 1% of the total population is of the Christian faith. In spite of the low percentage of Japanese Christians, many people have Christian weddings in Japan now. Finally, comparing Japanese culture to American culture is a very daunting task. Japan is a country which is thousands of years older than the United States. Although one might think the Japanese seem to be nothing like Americans, they are outwardly very much the same. For example, the Japanese listen to music, watch movies, play sports, and go to work and to school the same way Americans do. But it is the "kokoro," which is the mind and soul, of a Japanese person that is truly different than that of an American. This "kokoro" is something that can not be easily explained or understood. It is an awareness which one slowly receives as he or she is truly immersed in the culture of the rising sun of Japan. Bibliography Morton, W. Scott. Japan, Its History and Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994