Saturday, May 25, 2019

Stylistic Potential of the English Noun

STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE ENGLISH NOUN Table of Contents Introduction-3 Chapter One. Stylistic resources of grammatic units on the al-Qaeda of the position Noun -6 1. 1 Functions of the style and inexplicit meanings-7 1. 2 Grammatical Stylistics and Stylistic Grammar-9 1. 3 The meaning of the grammatical underframe-10 1. 4 Noun in varied functional styles -10 1. 5 Stylistic potential of the position noun-11 1. 5. 1 Stylistic potential of the family unit of grammatical gender-11 1. 5. 2 Stylistic potential of the course of number-26 1. 5. Stylistic potential of the year of consequence-30 1. 5. 4 Stylistic potential of the category of article determination-34 Chapter Two. abbreviation of examples taken from fiction on the basis of parcel outed a priori phenomena-42 2. 1 Analysis of the examples regarding the category of gender-43 2. 2 Analysis of the examples regarding the category of number-53 2. 3 Analysis of the examples regarding the category of case-55 2. 4 Analy sis of the examples regarding the category of article determination -59Conclusions-66 Reference list-69 Introduction in a flashadays learning a foreign lingual process implies its active rugged-nosed mastering, what, in its turn, is quite impossible to do grasping just the frame of a lyric, its standard grammar, linguistic communication incidentors which correspond only to the literary norms. Do we endlessly stick to the rules while speaking in our native speech? The answer will be no. Why do we break them? By doing this deliberately we may express our attitude to what we be swearing. We m emeritusiness know the grammar to make effective leger and rhetorical choices when we speak and create verbally.At the same time, breaking grammar rules or conventions stand be appropriate when rhetorical terms of audience and blueprint call for it. For example, we dont use the same grammar to write an Instant Message as we do to write an incline paper. So this aspect of learni ng any language should non be neglected. The approach that would be more(prenominal) than effective in this case is functional. Functions of the language argon indissolubly connected with the usage of any of its elements. In other words, the emergence of connotative meanings depends on the functions of the language.The functional approach requires first base base of all revealing rhetorical resources of the language units of its antithetical trains including the grammatical 1s. The latter are the object of the new branch of linguastylistics Grammatical Stylistics which basic aim implies study of stylistic means (both communicative and functional) of grammatical units. It stinkpot be subdivided into morphological and syntactical adept. If the stylistic means of Syntax are not usually cast upon doubt, those of Morphology on the opposite are.In the project t hither was made an attempt to demonstrate that the reason for this is the result of insufficient study. The other o bjectives of the present work are to consider, compare different points of see to it of linguists c oncerning the object of study to organize the material tally four nounal categories to show the stylistic purpose of the usage of studied phenomena to exposit connotative meanings of the considered grammatical forms to put the considered theory into answer.As to the methods employ in the project, the quest matchlesss pee been applied comparative ( in that respect was made an attempt to consider different linguists opinions concerning certain linguistic phenomena) analytical (on considering 36 literal texts there were picked up plenty of examples, that were unionised match four nounal categories and analyzed basing on the research made in the theoretic part). In the thesis there was made an ttempt to organize the material on the stylistic potential of the position Noun considering the following four nounal categories the category of gender, the category of number, the catego ry of case and the category of article determination. This work consists of two chapters. The first one deals with the functional approach to learning a foreign language, with the relatively new accomplishment Grammatical Stylistic. The purpose of this chapter is to reveal what has cause its appearance by considering different opinions of linguists and to illustrate the stylistic potential of the English Noun on the basis of roughly grammatical categories. on that point were considered rules concerning certain linguistic phenomena, but more or less of the work is foc utilize on what causes their violation (cases of transposition, neutralization). All the linguistic phenomena discussed in this chapter are illustrated in the arc minute of arc one by means of about cc cases that grant been taken from the works that belong to the belles-lettres style (tales, poe stress, short stories) written by such celebrated English and Ameri batch writers of 18-20 centuries as Blake W. , Cole ridgeS. T. , Munro H. , Poe A.A. , Hemingway E. , Salinger J. D, and so forth The aim of this chapter is to put the considered theory into practice showing the way the phenomena meet been dealt with work out. The examples are organized also according the four nounal categories mentioned higher up in the following way Examples regarding the category of gender (2. 1) (Here we distinguish two groups (1)A change noun use as fair(prenominal) (2)A de waken noun used as human beingsly, explaining the purpose of changing the gender) Examples regarding the category of number (2. ) (In this paragraph we consider more or less cases when proper, abstract, material nouns are used in the plural form form form) Examples regarding the category of case (2. 3) (Here we consider cases when inanimate nouns take the s- genitive) Examples regarding the category of article determination (2. 4)(in this paragraph we consider cases when the article is used in the linguistic environs that is alien to it). The analysis is supported by the conclusions after each paragraph. Chapter One Stylistic Resources of the grammatical units on the basis of the English NounAll the linguistic phenomena we consider in the presented work are the landing field of a relatively new science that is Stylistic Morphology. The purpose of this chapter is to reveal what have caused its appearing by considering different opinions of linguists and to illustrate the stylistic potential of the English Noun on the basis of whatsoever grammatical categories. The chapter starts with an effective approach in mastering a foreign language, to wit with the functional one. Paragraph 1. 1 also illustrates the relationship between connotative meanings and functions of the language. Paragraph 1. is devoted to the appearance of Grammatical Stylistics (Stylistic Grammar), its subdivision and contrary judgments concerning its importance. Then vigilance is paid to the meaning of the grammatical form and to the notio n of transposition. In the subsequent part of the chapter there was made an attempt to organize the material on the stylistic potential of the English noun considering the following nounal categories the category of gender (1. 5. 1) the category of number (1. 5. 2) the category of case (1. 5. 3) the category of article determination (1. 5. 3). 1. 1 Functions of the language and connotative meanings.at onceadays learning a foreign language implies its active practical mastering. What in its turn is quite impossible to do grasping just the system of a language, its standard grammar, language factors which correspond only to the literary norms. The approach that would be more effective in our case is a functional one. to a greater extent and more linguists come to agree with it today. The Russian linguist Kojina M. 1 said The indispensable attention to the peculiarities of the usage of language means is the most necessary curb and the most effective method of teaching (the Russian lin guist M. Kojina)This statement requires a deep research in the stylistic usage of language means, taking into consideration both communicative and functional character of stylistic phenomena. Functions of the language are indissolubly connected with the usage of any of its elements. In other words, the emergence of connotative meanings depends on the functions of the language. As to the latter, there are many different opinions concerning their number. solely the unequivocal majority of linguists agree on the point that the language is polyfunctional. For instance, R. Jackobson distinguishes the following six functions2 . Referential, that implies penchant onto the context 2. Emotive, that is the function of the expression of the speakers will, feelings 3. Poetic 4. Conative, that implies orientation onto the addressee 5. Metalingual, that is the function that provides the possibility to speak about the language by means of the language 6. Phatic, that implies the establishment o f the contact. So the emotive function, for example, implies the intention to give way to emotions that, in its turn, causes appearing of the emotionally expressive intension.Each function gives birth to certain stylistic shadows. And it is no accident that in any living language there exist stylistic connotations with their heterogeneous character that is determined by the variety of the functions, Now release slightly back to the first point of this paragraph we would interchangeable to continue it by mentioning that the functional approach in mastering foreign languages requires first of all revealing stylistic resources of the language units of its different levels including grammatical ones. The famed Russian linguist V. Vinogradov3 once mentionedThe stylistics of the national language includes al its sides its phonetic system, Grammar, Word-stock and Phraseology. So far in Stylistics overmuch attention has been paid mainly to the analysis in the field of Word stock. But the success in the late culture of the problems of Functional Stylistics allows the linguists to apply the stylistic analysis also to Grammar (including Morphology). 1. 2 Grammatical Stylistics or Stylistic Grammar The modern stage of the development of Linguistics is characterized by appearing of new disciplines at the meeting point of old ones. Grammar and Stylistics are closely connected with each other.As a result, a new branch of linguastylistics has already appeared. That is Grammatical Stylistics or Stylistic Grammar. The basic aim of Grammatical Stylistics implies study of stylistic means (both expressive and functional) of grammatical units. Grammatical Stylistics apprise be subdivided into morphological and syntactical one. But if the Stylistic means of Syntax are not usually cast upon doubt those of Morphology on contrary are. There are some rather skeptical judgments (A,M. Peshkovski, A. N. Gvozdev, A. Alonso). Acknowledging only Syntactical Stylistics the Spanish ling uist Martin Alonso writes4Style is not Morphology it is connected not with the word but with the sentence. However, this concord of the Stylistic role of Morphology according to Firsova I. cannot be considered right. 5 It narrows the limits of Stylistics. According to the fact that the object of Stylistics implies the language in the process of its usage the stylistic analysis must embrace all the levels of the language including the morphological one. The observation proves the point of view of those linguists who consider that morphological units have stylistic possibilities and must be the subject of Stylistics.The tralatitious idea regarding the insignificance of Stylistic recourses of Morphology is the result of insufficient study of the material. Stylistic Morphology has a number of objects of study. This is on the one hand the subsystem of the means of word-building and on the other hand the subsystem of categorical grammatical forms. In the present work we are going to de al with the second one. 1. 3 The meaning of the grammatical form In state to realize better the stylistic potential of the morphological means it is important to consider the structure of their meaning.In this work attention is going to be paid to the grammatical form. Its meaning is not something homogeneous. It can have two elements of meaning denotative and connotative. The first implies what the grammatical form denotes itself that is its grammatical meaning. The second element implies a complication by any kind of stylistic information (of both emotional and logical character). The connotative meaning of the units of the morphological level implies their ability to evoke in our consciousness secondary associations of emotional or logical character connected with our go.In some cases the expression of different emotions, rating and also of functional stylistic connotations is realized by breaking usual valency relations. What we are speaking about is transposition. That is th e divergence between the traditional meaning and that which is prompted by the context on the level of Morphology. And now at this stage let us consider stylistic potential of the English noun on the basis of some grammatical categories. 1. 4 Noun in different functional styles The noun plays a very important role among the morphological resources of any language including, of course, English.That is determined according the Russian linguist Golub I. 6 by its semantic skylarks numeric predominance over other parts speech potential figurative and expressive means. The noun as a part of speech according to Blokh M. I. has the categorial meaning of substance or thingness7. It is impossible to express an idea without the latter that is why the use of nouns is an obligatory condition for any speech act. Golub I. mentions that their frequency of use fluctuates depending on the content of the text the style it belongs to the peculiarities of authors intention.Style influences over the choice of words, their forms and their place in the sentence. This correlation of style and words influence greatly over the composition of linguistic units. Nouns are often very much needed in alleged(prenominal) bookish styles the scientific prose, newspaper, publicistic styles and also that of official documents. That is determined by the necessity to get wind institutions, someones, their activities, etc. The use in the belles-lettres style is determined by the creative purpose of the author, the way he or she resolves certain stylistic tasks.Here the noun fulfils not only the informative function but also an aesthetical one. A stylistically neutral noun can be concernd into the system of expressive means of the language and so it gets expressive connotation8 . 1. 5. Stylistic Potential of the English noun 1. 5. 1 Stylistic Potential of the category of gender In Old English all nouns were classified as masculine, maiden desire or sometimes demasculinise based entirely on grammatical considerations, not on sex or the lack of it. They were referred to by pronoun declensions that also were subdivided according to grammatical gender.Since then the language has undergone a great variety of big and small changes. The system of grammatical gender was not an exception. Since the 12th to 15th centuries most of the gender distinctions has disappeared. 9 Basing on the fact that the noun in Contemporary English does not possess any special gender forms and the accompanying adjective, pronoun, article does not agree with the head teacher noun (Compare Engl. a puppy equal lady, a young man, a young tree and Russ. , , ) some linguists (M. Ganshina, N. Vasilevskaia10, A. I. Smirnitsky11,G. Leech and J.Svartvik12, I. G. Koshevaya13, etc) conclude that in Modern English there is no grammatical gender. What English nouns now have is according to them natural gender1 that stipulates the sex of the denotive or its lack of it. So all the nouns can be subdivided int o three classes according to their lexical meaning masculine (referred to as he) names of male beings, feminine (referred to as she) names of female beings, neuter (referred to as it) names of lifeless things and abstract notions2 manfulfather, fellow, boy Femininemother, girl, sister Neutercomputer, lamp, beauty, friendshipNow let us consider another(prenominal)(prenominal) point of view that is to swear that of Blokh M. 14 that a snatch differs from the one already mentioned above. In her book Theoretical Grammar she agrees that the gender division of noun in English is expressed as nounal classification (not as variable forms of words). The read/write head remains, Blokh M. continues, whether this classification has any serious grammatical relevance. She gives some arguments that support the dogmatic answer to this requestion (see below). In the conclusions to the chapter we can read the category of gender in English is inherently semantic, i. . significant in so far as it reflects the actual haves of the named objects. But the semantic nature of the category does not in the to the lowest degree make it into non-grammatical So, as we can see, Blokh M. considers the category of gender as a grammatical one. In the book she presents it by means of the binary privative resistor. (It is a emblem of opposition that is formed by a contrastive pair of members in which one member is characterized by the presence of a certain differential feature (mark), while the other member is characterized by the absence of this feature.The member in which the feature is present is called marked or weak or positive (+) the member in which the feature is absent is called unmarked, weak or blackball (-)). It is expressed by the correlation of nouns with the ad hominem pronouns of the third person he, she, and it. The category is formed by two oppositions that are related to each other on a hierarchical basis. According to the upper opposition all nouns can be sub divided into two groups person (human) nouns intemperate member and non-person (non-human) nouns weak member.Within the subset of person nouns the lower opposition divides them into masculine weak member and feminine strong member (Fig. 1) Figure 11 Oppositional structure of the category of gender15 (according to Blokh M. ) +- strong member -- weak member A lot of English nouns can express both feminine and masculine person genders. They are referred to as nouns of the super C gender (i. e. doctor, teacher, president, etc. ). This capability of expressing both genders makes the category variable.On the other hand, when there is no need to indicate the sex of the person referents of these nouns, they are used neutrally as masculine. Another interesting interpretation of gender in the English language found we in A University Grammar of English by R. Quirk,etc16. Its authors say that some pronouns are gender-sensitive (the ad hominemised he, she, it and the relative who, which), b ut others are not (they, some, these, etc). Basing on the pattern of pronoun substitutions for comic nouns they distinguish ten gender classes ( see Fig. 2). Figure 12 Gender classes17 (according to Quirk R. , Greenbaum S. Leech G, etc) Gender classes Examples Pronoun substitution animate masculine ______ uncle___aunt____ who he________________ feminine_______ doctor__ who- she________________ dual___________ baby____ who he/she____________ common _______ family__ who-he/she/? it, which it__ collective_______ bull____ which-it, who they______ masculine higher_ animal_________ which it/ (? who) he____ feminine higher__ animal_________ cow____ higher organism__ which it/ (? ho)-she)____ lower animal____ France__ ant_____ which it/she____________ which-it________________ nonliving inanimate_______ Box Which it______________ There are certain rules about what nouns can be regarded to as masculine, feminine and neuter. Some times they are broken in o rder to achieve a certain goal. At this stage it would be quite logic if we consider some of such cases grouping them in two sets where 1. A masculine or a feminine noun is used as neuter 2. A neuter noun is used as a masculine or a feminine one. 1. A masculine or a feminine noun is used as neuter (depersonification) Dealing with this topic the Russian linguist Screbnev I. gives among several examples this one18 Where did you consider it? - asked Mord Emly of Miss Gilliken with a satirical accent. Who are you calling it demanded Mr. Barden aggressively. Praps youll kindly call me Im and not it (W. Partridge) 19 So here Miss Gilliken is referred to with the pronoun it . A feminine noun becomes neuter. By doing this the speaker shows his neglect, he is probably mocking at her and considers that she is not worth(predicate) being respected. 2. A neuter noun is used as every feminine or masculine. Let us start considering the second set with animate nouns that are regarded to as neute r, viz. with animals. The main purpose of such usage according to Ganshina M. , Vasilevskaya N. 20 is to create a certain image. In tales, for example, the choice of gender greatly depends on the personal qualities the author ascribes to the animal deferral a minute, said the monkey proudly, I can climb. He ran quickly up the tree and threw the rich ripe fruit to the ground. Next day the track down went to see his friend the sable she had many daughters and forest citizenry alship canal came to see her. 21 In general they say all nouns denoting animals can be substituted by the pronoun it and so considered neuter We found the horse in its stable. 22 And summarizing everything M. Ganshina and V. Vasilevskaya come to the following conclusion the lower the animal in the scale, the more exclusively is the noun denoting it referred to in the neuter gender. And so nouns denoting birds, fishes, insects and reptiles and generally considered s neuter The snake crept into its hole. 23 Ac cording to G. Leech we use he or she for animals when we stand for of them as having the personal qualities of human beings (e. g. family pets) perplex you given Rover his dog-biscuits. 24 Alice Macline singles out two types of nouns ones that indicate the sex of the animals and ones that dont. Let us illustrate them by the following examples25 Nouns indicate the sex of the animals do not indicate the sex of the animals Male FemaleCommon words bull, steer(cowcattle stallion, gelding(marehorse boarsowpig, hog ramewesheep buckdoedeer cock, rooster, capon*henchicken gandergoosegoose drakeduckduckMentioning the case when the sex of the animal is not indicated by the noun M. Ganshina says that the nouns that stand for the larger and bolder animals are generally associated with the masculine gender, nouns that stand for the smaller and weaker with feminine26 Masculine elephant, horse, dog Feminine cat, parrot, hare. The elephant lifted his mighty trunk. The cat has upset her milk27. Her e goes one more observation made by M. Ganshina concerning names of animals, the latter agree with the feminine pronoun also when their maternal instinct is referred to A bird betrays her nest when trying to enclose it. The swallow was teaching her young how to fly.But in the imaginary world of Literature where there are no such traditional associations the writer is clean-handed to choose the gender to refer to his/her character in case of personification. Here M. Ganshina gives an example from O. Wilde Happy Prince where the author makes the swallow of masculine gender and the reed of feminine One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. His friends had gone away to Egypt six weeks before, but he had stayed behind, for he was in chouse with the most beautiful Reed. He had met her early in the rise as he was flying down the river after a big yellow moth28. sometimes one can refer to some thing that one feels is necessary or very important to him or her, that he or she l ikes very much with the pronoun he or she.By doing this one as if humanifies () the thing one adores and in this way expresses his or her affection. In terms of gender the neuter noun becomes both feminine (in case it is referred to as she) or masculine (in case it is referred to as he) as in the example given by the Russian linguist Kolpakchi M. 29 My typewriter must be easy to reach, he is my second self. Speaking about abstract nouns it is worth mentioning that by changing the gender the English speaker can try his attitude towards it, its importance. piece of music dealing with it in her book Kolpakchi M. A. gives the following example Peace raised her voiceShe says that the author used here the possessive pronoun her (that corresponds to the personal pronoun she) not by mere accident. He or she used it on purpose imagining Peace as a adult female, an unwearying fighter for peace. The choice of gender is very subjective. To illustrate this Kolpakchi M. A. gives the followin g two examples Because I could not step for death, He kindly stepped for me. E. Dickenson Death was not there. It must have gone nearly another street. E. Hemingway Speaking about the impending death E. Dickenson, for example, made the latter masculine. Hemingway, on the contrary, referred to it with the pronoun it making it neuter.And so the reader gets the idea according to Kolpakchi M. A. that E. Dickenson ventured death as a man and Hemingway who had seen a lot of cases of death considered it an ordinary thing not personifying it. Now let us consider one more thing, namely zoomorphisms. These are the words that denote animals, birds, or fantastic creatures but are used to refer to mass. The Russian linguist I. V. Arnold says that in this case they get a metaphorical emotionally colored and often offensive connotation30. She mentions that it can be easily noticed if we compare direct and metaphorical meanings of the following words ass, beast, bitch, donkey, duck, mule, pig, s wine, tabby, toad, wolf, worm, etc.Here are two examples with such metaphorically employed words in the context that gives Arnold I. V while considering zoomorphisms31 1. I was not going to have all the old tabbies bossing her around just because she is not what they call our class (A. Wilson The Middle Age) In this example the speaker calls the ladies she does charity work with old tabbies. Arnold I. V mentions that in the same chapter but a bit earlier the narrator says that she (the speaker) regarded them as fools and did not hesitate to tell him so. That supports the idea that the word tabbies is used here emotionally. 2. What were you talking about to that old mare downstairs? S. Delaney) While education the sentence you as if see the speaker pronouncing it with scorn, probably hatred. Alongside with the emotional connotation these words can also have an expressive, stylistic (colloquial) one. I. V. Arnold notices that when the words that name animals have synonyms, the latter can differ in intensity and character of connotation32. She illustrate this by giving the following examples pig, monkey, donkeyswine, ass, ape can express irony together with affection. can sound rude, offensive. Here goes an example provided by Arnold I. V. of a zoomorphism in the context E. g. Dont be such a donkey, dear (C. P. Snow)Negative connotations according to the same Russian linguist can be escalate by means of different epithets, emphatic constructions you impudent pup, you filthy swine, you lazy dog, that big horse of a girl33. Now let us go on with inanimate nouns. They can be substituted by the pronouns which, it and so treated as neuter. But sometimes they can be personified and the nouns that denote them are referred to either as belonging to the masculine or the feminine gender. Here are some traditional associations that Ganshina M and Vasilevskaya N distinguish34 1. The nouns moonlight, earth are considered feminine, sun masculine It is dulcet to watch the su n in his chariot of gold, and the moon in her chariot of pearl. (Wilde) The earth awoke from her winter sleep. 2.Those abstract nouns that suggest such ideas as strength, fierceness, courage, etc are considered masculine (anger, death, fear). The ones that are associated with gentleness, beauty are referred to as feminine (spring, peace, dawn). Names of countries can be substituted by either the pronoun it or she. So they can be considered either neuter or feminine. The choice depends on their use. According to Leech G. if the country is seen as a political or cultural unit rather than as geographical unit it is treated as feminine Last year France increased her exports by 10 per cent. 35 Otherwise it is treated as neuter Ireland is an island, on three sides it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean1In sport the name of a country according to Quirk R. can stand for the team that fit her and be referred to as a personal collective noun France have improved their chance of winning the cup. 3 6 In this class Quirk also places ships and other entities towards which an crank attitude is expressed by a personal substitute (ship, boat, steamer, machine, etc) What a lovely ship. What is she called? He also mentions that a proud possessor of a sports car may refer to it as she or perhaps as he if the owner is female. When a nonpersonal abstract noun (neuter) in the sentence stands for a personal one it becomes he (masculine) or she (femenine). The Russian linguist Arnold I. V. entions that in case of transposition of nonpersonal abstract nouns (used as personal) some emotional or expressive connotations appear37. She gives the following examples The chubby little eccentricitya chubby eccentric child He is a disgrace to his familyhe is a disgraceful son The old oddity an odd old person. From the point of view of sociology it is worth mentioning the sexist language here while speaking about the gender. It can be specify as speech and writing that make unnecessary distinctions based on sex (A. Macline). Some people do not like employ occupational terms that show the sex of the person who is doing the work.They substitute them for nonsexist equivalents38 traditionalisticNonsexist stewardessflight attendant postmanpostal worker chairman chairperson or chair salesladysalesperson or salesclerk According to record book of English Usage39 some of the most interesting changes that have taken place in the English language over the last 30 geezerhood have been driven by the desire to quash sexism in the language. This reform feedment differs from most previous ones based on a desire for English to be more logical, more efficient in expression. The book says that the reforms involving gender are explicitly political in intent and represent a quest for social justice rather than a wish for more consistent logic.The author of this chapter considers that this movement has been remarkably successful by historical standards. A glisten at any newspaper or five m inutes in front of the television news will produce evidence to show that people are changing their language to accommodate concerns about fairness to both sexes. It is undeniable that large numbers of men and women are uncomfortable using constructions that have been criticized for being sexist. Since there is little to be gained by offending people in ones audience, it makes sense to educate oneself about the issues involved and to try to accommodate at least some of these concerns. The use of the sexist language can sometimes lead to ambiguity. There is an example with the term policemen in the book.While using it, it is not clear whether the speaker is excluding women police officers or whether he or she allows the term stand for the entire police force. Another problem is that not everyone perceives the sexist language the same way. People have different levels of sensitivity on these matters and everyone must find a level that suits him or her. Some people not object to using the generic he, but avoid the generic use of compounds ending in man. Some are not comfortable using the form fellow, as in fellow colleagues, to refer to women. That complicates the matter. Finally, it is important to remember that avoiding sexist terms and constructions is no guarantee that what one has written will be free of gender bias.Sexist stereotypes, such as the assumption that all nurses are women or that all executive are men, can seem like the status quo the way the world is- especially when one is distracted by a deadline or concerned about some other feature of his or her writing, such as organization or its tone. Sexist assumptions can be insidious. A headline that reads Allegations Embroil Financier and Woman may seem blameless at first, but if the article shows the woman to be a financier as well, one have to wonder about the politics of the headline editor, who has simulated that a financier must naturally be a man and that a womans professional status is someh ow not worth mentioning40. . 5. 2ylistic Potential of the category of number The category of number is expressed by the opposition of the plural form to the singular one. The strong member is the plural. Basing on the quantitative characteristics of the nouns two groups can be distinguished denumerable and uncountable. Countable nouns refer to people, places, or things that can be counted (one dollar/two dollars, one house, two houses). They these countable nouns can always be made plural usually by adding s or some other variation of the plural ending (student(s), countri(es), child(ren). A few words are the same in both the singular and plural forms (deer, sheep).Uncountable nouns often refer to food, beverages, substances, or abstractions (meat, tea, steel, information) some uncountable nouns (but not the abstract ones) can be made countable by adding a count frame in front of them (two gallons of milk, six blocks of ice, a bar of soap, a bunch of celery). The nouns of the secon d group are treated as either singular or plural and are usually referred to as singularia tantum (peace, love, friendship) only singular and pluralia tantum (scissors, trousers, spectacles) only plural. M. I. Blokh41 refers to them as absolute singular and the absolute plural. Unfortunately, there is not clear-cut distinction between countable and uncountable nouns. Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable even without adding count frames. For example, as an uncountable noun, experience refers to abstract knowledge or skill that can be gained by observing or participating in events.As a singular or plural countable noun (experience/experiences), the word experience refers to a particular(a) instance (or instances) of participation in events. Similarly, the uncountable noun field glass is a substance made from silicates a glass (singular) is something you drink from and glasses (plural) are frames containing lenses that correct imperfect vision42. There are other exception s to the countable/uncountable distinction as well. Moreover, a noun that is countable in ones native language may be uncountable in English, and vice-versa. For example, watch is countable in English but uncountable in Russian. However, as long as we are aware of these differences they probably will not cause us much difficulty.The Guide to Grammar and Writing 43 says that a special situation exists when a subject seems not to agree with its predicate. For instance, when we essential each student to see his or her counselor (and each student is assigned to only one counselor), but we want to avoid that his or her construction by pluralizing, do we say Students must see their counselors or Students must see their counselor? The singular counselor is necesssary to avoid the implication that students have more than one counselor apiece. Do we say Many sons dislike their father or fathers? We dont mean to suggest that the sons have more than one father, so we use the singular father.T heodore Bernstein, in Dos, Donts and Maybes of English Usage, says that Idiomatically the noun applying to more than one person remains in the singular when (a) it represents a feel or thing possessed in common (The audiences curiosity was aroused) or (b) it is an abstraction (The judges applied their reason to the problem), or (c) it is a figurative word (All ten children had a sweet tooth) (203). Sometimes good sense will have to guide you. We might want to say Puzzled, the children scratched their head to avoid the image of multi-headed children, but The audience rose to their foot is plainly ridiculous and about to tip over. In The boys moved their car/cars, the plural would indicate that each boy have a car, the singular that the boys (together) owned one car (which is quite possible). It is also possible that each boy owned more than one car.One should be prepared for such situations, and consider carefully the implications of using either the singular or the plural. One mig ht have to avoid the problem by going the opposite direction of pluralizing moving things to the singular and talking about what each boy did44. There are cases when the opposition of the singular to the plural is neutralized when a change of meaning, attitude is involved. Let us consider some examples organizing them in the following groups A) countable the plural stands for the singular and vice versa B) Countable nouns repetition groups C) Uncountable nouns the plural form results in expressive transposition 1. ountable the plural stands for the singular and vice versa The example below shows that such nouns as charge can be substituted either with the singular pronoun it or the plural pronoun they (without changing the number in the noun). R. Quirk and other authors of A University Grammar of English say that the difference reflects a difference in attitude the singular stresses the non-personal collectivity of the group and the plural the personal individuality within the grou p 1. The committee has met and it has rejected the proposal. The committee have met and they have rejected the proposal 45 Here are similar examples 2. The family were gathered round the table. 3. The government are unanimous in disapproving the move of the opposition.In the subsequent cases (when the plural implies the singular and vice versa) the relation of the whole to its parts comes to the foreground. The varieties of transfer (whole part and part whole) are called synecdoche, which itself is the simplest case of metonymy 4. How dare he talk like that to ladies? (there is only one lady present) 5. Now whats that? Reading books instead of working? (the delinquent is certainly reading one book at the moment) 6. This is what the student is supposed to know (every student, a number of students, all those who study the subject the singular stands for the plural)46 2. Countable nouns repetition groups noncommittally large quantity can be intensely presented by means of repetitio n groups.The nouns in them can be used either in the plural or in the singular There were trees and trees all around us. I lit cigarette after cigarette. This variety of plural can be considered as a peculiar analytical form in the marginal sphere of the category of number47. (C)Uncountable nouns the plural form results in expressive transposition As it has been mentioned above the English noun has both the singular and the plural forms. But there is a restriction on this general rule proper, abstract, material nouns have just one form. And if the restriction is ignored some particular meanings, connotations are restricted. The plural form of the following nouns in bold type intensifies large quantity E. g. the sands of the cease the fruits of the toil Waters on a starry night are beautiful and fair. (W. Wordsworth) But where are the snows of yesterday? (F. Villon) It plays not the last role in making the description more graphic. M. I. Blokh calls it descriptive uncountable pl ural. 1. 5. 3 Stylistic Potential of the category of case This category is expressed in the English language by the opposition of the genitive or possessive case to the common case. The strong member is the first one. Functionally, those two case systems relate to one another in a very peculiar way. If the common form is not restricted in its uses, the genitive one is.It is restricted to the functions that have a collimate expression by prepositional constructions. To illustrate the complex nature of the genitive Blokh M. distinguishes the following basic semantic types of the genitive48 the genitive of possessor E. g. Christines living populate (the living room belongs to Christine), Dads earnings, Kate and Jerrys grandparents. the genitive of integer (organic possession) E. g. Janes busy hands (the busy hands as part of Janes person), Patricks voice, the hotels lobby. the genitive of agent E. g. the great mans arrival (the great man arrives), Peters insistence, the hotels competitive position. the genitive of patient E. g. the champions sensational defeat (the champion is defeated), Ericks final expulsion. the genitive of destination E. g. womens footwear (footwear for women), childrens verses, a fishers tent. In some postmodified noun phrases it is possible to use an s genitive by affixing the inflection to the final part of the postmodification rather than to the head noun itself. Thus The teachers room The teacher of musics room This group genitive is regularly used with such posmodifications as in someone elses house, the heir apparents name, as well as prepositional phrases. Other examples involve coordinations n hour and a half(a)s discussion a week or sos sunshine. 49 The group genitive is not commonly acceptable following a clause, though in colloquial use one sometimes hears examples like50 Old man what-do-you-call-hims house has been painted A man I knows son has been injured in a railway accident. In normal use, especially in writing , such s-genetives would be replaced by of-genitive The son of a man I know has been injured in a railway accident. Now let us consider the combination of + genitive case (a friend of my brothers) or of + possessive pronoun (a friend of mine). According to Ganshina M. , Vasilevskaya N. t has usually partitive, denoting one of Here are some examples51 He is a friend of my brothers (= one of my brothers friends) It is a book of mine (=one of my book) It is a novel of Galsworthys (= one of his novels). The say that sometimes this meaning can be lost and the construction acquires emotional force (denoting praise, pleasure, displeasure, etc) or becomes purely descriptive We all admired that clever remark of his. That cottage of my friends is surrounded by a beautiful tend. It was really surprising that he had been able to find this small island of ours at all. Is she a particular friend of yours? A friend of the doctors has arrived52.In Modern English the use of the genitive case is res tricted chiefly to nouns denoting living beings. In the following examples provided by Ganshina M. , Vasilevskaya N. the use of the genitive case is closely connected with personification53 1. with the nouns sun, moon, earth The suns (his) rays are very hot at noon in summer. The moons (her) shadow swept over the lake. And each flower and herb on Earths dark breast rose from the dreams of its rooted(p) rest. (Shelly) 2. with the nouns ship, boat, vessel The ships crew were all asleep. 3. with the names of countries Moscow is Russians greatest scientific and cultural centre. 4. with abstract nouns (especially in poetry) darknesss candles are burnt out, and jocund day stands tiptoe on the misty mountain top. But that does not exhaust the stylistic potential of the genitive case. It was mentioned in by Arnold54 that the use of the inflected form is characteristic of newspaper headlines not only because of space economy but also because this form emphasizes the attribute. comparabi lity Hollywoods Studios Empty with The Studios of Hollywood empty they prefer the first variant. Now let us consider one more point of view regarding the s and of-phrase. E. G. Rappoport55 says that s expresses indissoluble connection between the whole and its part.Of ,on the contrary, characterizes such a relation between the whole and its part when the latter is understood as something that exists on its own. The author gives then an example from the novel by Galsworthy The White Monkey. Michael and Soms are waiting for Fleurs baby to be delivered Michael had his right weapon system tight across his chest, Soames his left. They formed a pattern, thus side by side. (Both were rather strained. ) Then Soames says, Listen Sounds different confused Michaels hand seized something, gripped it hard it was cold, thin the hand of Soames. So Mike at first perceived Soames hand (the hand of Soames) as an object (something) .It doesnt come to him at once that he has gripped his fathers-in-l aw hand. Michaels hand, on the contrary, represents a closer unity and it is equal to Michael. 1. 5. 4 Stylistic Potential of the category of article determination The category of article determination is not universally manifestable. The categorial forms determination-indetermination are neutralized when either the definite or undefined article is omitted although it should precede the noun or the noun group. But the neutralization (absence of the article) is stylistically heterogeneous. Most depends on what sublanguage the text belongs, on the circumstances of communication.It is known that absence of articles is typical of headlines to newspaper columns (the sublanguage used in newspaper headlines is jocularly called Headlinese by analogy with Chinese, Portuguese, etc)56 Prime Minister Talks on Middle East Events Police Seek Mystery Assailant Miner Sentenced to Death Picket essay to Hold up Train Skrebnev I. M. gives also the following example that demonstrates absence Quadrup ed. Graminivorous. Forty teeth, namely twenty-four grinders, four eye-teeth and twelve incisive. Sheds coat in the spring in marshy countries sheds hoofs too. Hoofs hard but requiring to be shod with iron. Age known by marks in mouth. That is an extract from the speech of an model(a) pupil of the famous school of facts, Bitzer by name (Hard Times by Charles Dickens).The boy, on being asked to define a horse, talks as if he were asked to create word for word the text of some reference book (in books of this kind articles are often omitted). So there is no article in particular types of abbreviated language57 newspaper headlines (Girls dies in Fire) dictionary deginitions (Crystal = substance solidified in geometrical form) instructions (Read instructions first. Check plug. Select correct speed. ) telegrams (Sign contract immediately. letter follows. ) Sometimes articles are omitted in careless colloquial speech. To demonstrate this Skrebnev I remembers the well-known scene I of Pygmalion by B. Shaw where one of the by-standers says in Eliza Doolittles exoneration Girl neer said a word to him (instead of The girl)Articles are also eliminated in many Pidgins as well as in a number of languages like, for example, Russian. Bring me dog, would possibly be more meaningful in context of the moment, than in some literary sense58. Article causes a immense amount of confusion for speakers of most of the worlds other languages, who seem to get on rather well without them. Even between British and American usage one finds subtle differences in nuance or emphasis. For example, Americans usually say someone is in the hospital, much as they could be at the confide or in the park. To the British this sounds like there is only one hospital, just as they would say a child is at school or a criminal in prison.This is because they are thinking more of the primary activities that take place within those institutions rather than the buildings in which they are housed. If, however, you are yet visiting one of these places, you are at the hospital, at the school or at the prison. Considering this category in Theoretical grammar M. I. Blokh distinguishes two levels of opposition. On the first level the definite article is contrasted with the indefinite and zero-article being the strong member because of its identifying and individualizing function, while the other forms are referred to as the weak member as they leave the feature (identification) unmarked.On the second level the two types of generalization are contrasted relative and absolute. The first one is interpreted as the strong member (the indefinite article and the meaningful absence of the article as its analogue with uncountable nouns and nouns in the plural) the second one thence as the weak member of the opposition (the meaningful absence of the article). (Fig 13) Fig. 13 The category of article determination (according to Blokh M. ) Article determination IdentificationNon-identification The +A (N)/? Relative generalizationAbsolute generalization (Classification)(Abstraction) A (N)/ ? 1 + ? 2 The article may occasionally be used with an uncharacteristic nounal collocation.It is worth considering now some of such cases starting with instances that involve the indefinite article According to Blokh M59 it can be used with a nounal collocation of normally individualizing meaning After all, youve got a best side and a pip side of yourself and its no good showing the worst side and harping on it. (A. Christie) It may occasionally be used with a unique referent noun Ted Latimer from beyond her murmured The sun here isnt a real sun. The choice of the adjective in this case is rather subjective. To illustrate this Kolpakchi M. A. gives the following example. The moon that seemed to Onegin foolish, can seem to somebody else mocking or ominous. 60 Being used before a proper name it can indicate a person whose exact identity has not been established There is a Miss Frost waiting for you61. Being used before a proper noun according to Arnold I. V. it can create an evaluative metaphorical connotation I do not claim to be a Caruso=I dont think that I sing well I do not claim to be Caruso=I dont say that my name is Caruso62. The connotation can be either positive or negative. In the following example also provided by Arnold I. V. the evaluation is undoubtfully positive A century ago there may have been no Leibnitz, but there was a Gauss, a Faraday and a Darwin. (N. Viner Cybernetics)The indefinite article in this case emphasizes appreciation of their role in the development of science. However, very often when the indefinite article stands before a proper name of an undistinguished person it may render a negative connotation (it can point out, for example, to some demerits,etc). Here Arnold I. V. gives the following example He was not a Bagster (GGreen The main point). -He does not want to be like Bagster. Being used before a proper noun the indefinite article can reveal one more meaning, namely belonging to a famous family. In this case it always reveals an evaluative connotation Elisabeth was a Tudor Elisabeth possessed some family traits of the noble kin.Here go some other cases that involve the definite article Proper nouns are names of particular people, places, and things (John F. Kennedy, New York City, Notre Dame Cathedral), and for that reason they are inherently definite. Nevertheless, the definite article is not used with most singular proper nouns. For example, if you are referring to your friend George, you wouldnt say The George and I went to a movie last night. The only times the is used with a name like this are a) when the speaker wants to be emphatic, as in the Elizabeth Taylor (to emphasize that you are talking about the famous actress, and not about another woman with the same name)63.Here goes another example provided by BlokhM Know my partner? Old Robinson. Yes, the Robinson. Dont you know? The notorious R obinson. (J Conrad Lord Jim) Being used with a proper noun, it refers to one particular individual64 Is he the Stephen Spielberg, the film director? b) when the speaker is actually using the name as a common noun, as in the George that I introduced you to last night (the real meaning of this phrase is the man named George ). Plural names, on the other hand, are always preceded by the the Johnsons, the Bahamas, etc65. Now let us consider two other cases that involve the zero article It may be occasionally used with an ordinary concrete noun the emantic nature of which stands in sharp contradiction to the idea of uncountable generalization66 The glasses had a habit of slipping down her button nose which did not have enough bridge circuit to hold them up (S. M. Disney) The Russian linguist Arnold I. V. mentions that together with countable nouns it makes them abstract and considers the following example There head falls forward, fatigued at evening, And dreams of crustal plate, wa fture from window, spread of welcome, Kissing of wife under single sheet But waking sees Bird-flocks nameless to him, through doorway voices Of new men making another love. In this poem by V. Oden Wanderer extreme tiredness of the Wanderer is rendered according to Arnold I. V. by means of abstract images.This fuzziness helps the reader to feel that home and happiness are just a dream. In all these cases that illustrate the peculiar cases involving the article traces of transposition can be seen. Chapter 2 Analysis of examples taken from fiction on the basis of considered theoretical phenomena Being a practical one Chapter2 illustrates the points mentioned in the previous theoretical chapter by means of about 200 instances. The latter have been taken mostly from works of English and American authors that belong to the belles-lettres style (tales, poetry, short stories). The aim of this chapter is to put the considered theory into practice showing the way the phenomena have been dealt with work out.All the examples were considered in the following way Examples regarding the category of gender (2. 1) Here we distinguish two groups A. A neuter noun used as feminine B. A neuter noun used as masculine, explaining the purpose of changing the gender. Examples regarding the category of number (2. 2) In this paragraph we consider some cases when proper, abstract, material nouns are used in the plural form. Examples regarding the category of case (2. 3) Here we consider cases when inanimate nouns take the s-genitive. Examples regarding the category of article determination (2. 4) In this paragraph we consider cases when the article is used in the linguistic environment that is alien to it. 1.Analysis of the examples regarding the category of gender As it has been already mentioned in the theoretical chapter the gender division of noun in English is expressed as nounal classification (not as variable forms of words) which has grammatical relevance. The category is exp ressed by the correlation of nouns with the personal pronouns of the third person singular (he, she, it). That is why the latter accompanies all the considered nouns in the examples of this paragraph. Those that are referred to as he are traditionally considered as masculine, and so accordingly there can be distinguished also feminine (referred to as she) and neuter (referred to as it). There are certain rules about what nouns can be regarded to as masculine, feminine or neuter.Sometimes they are broken in order to achieve a certain goal. Such cases are considered in this paragraph, namely when a normally considered neuter noun is used as feminine or masculine. All the examples are divided accordingly into two groups which are considered separately 1. A neuter noun is used as feminine 2. A neuter noun is used as masculine. In each subset we consider (A) cases where the choice of gender is determined by some traditional associations and (B) examples where this choice is free. It is a lso worth mentioning that all the subsequent instances are connected with personification. 1. A neuter noun is used as feminine A. Traditional choice of genderIn the following example the word vessel (that is neutrally referred to as it) is accompanied by the possessive pronoun her that corresponds to the personal pronoun she. This is actually one of the ways of expressing an affectionate attitude towards any kind of vessel, vehicle, which is traditionally, associated with the personal pronoun she ? There lies the port the vessel puffs her sail. (A. Tennyson The lady of Sharlott) The same thing will illustrate the following example ? And why not? he would have asked. If he hadnt watched every penny all his life he wouldnt be the owner of the fine ship lying alongside now. What if she was only a small coastal cargo-ship grossing a mere 2053 tons?She was rated Al at Lloyds, she would be sailing within the hour with a full cargo, and she was his. He owned and commanded her. (Porteus R . S. A Deal with Father) Here the word of the neuter gender ship is referred to as she and so it becomes feminine. We see that the owner is very proud that he owned and commanded her (personification in this case emphasizes this). Here goes another example from the same short story where the word ship is also used as a feminine noun ? In the first grey streaks of dawn they sighted her a pitiful, crippled thing , so far down by the head that the bigger seas broke clean over her foredeck. Captain Wellshot knew her well.Only a few hours ago she had been a desist modern cargo-ship of 10,000 tons, the latest addition to the Greek line. Now she lay with bowed head, wallowing sluggishly as if she no longer had the energy to rise to the seas, content to let them wash over her till they engulfed her completely. From a seamans point of view she was nothing but a menace to navigation until she took the final plunge. (Porteous R. S. A Deal with Father) The image of the sinking ship is as if p ersonified here (Captain Wellshot knew her well She lay with bowed head ) In the subsequent example the word lunation (that is neutrally referred to as it) is also accompanied by the possessive pronoun her that corresponds to the personal pronoun she.That has a lot to do with personification that is also realized by capitalizing the word daydream and by using with it the participle foretelling (that usually used with animate nouns) ? I see the old Moon in her lap, foretelling The coming-on of rain and squally blast (Coleridge S. T. crapper An Ode) Traditionally such abstract nouns that suggest such ideas as gentleness, beauty, etc are associated with the feminine gender. The subsequent three sentences with examples illustrate this. In the first one the word autumn that is normally referred to as it is substituted by the personal pronoun she. So being a neuter noun it is used as feminine. That makes us imagine a nice woman who gave golden fruit to every garden The Autumn gave gol den fruit to every garden, but to the Giants garden she gave none. (Oscar Wilde The Selfish Giant) In the second one the word spring (that is neutrally referred to as it) is substituted by the personal pronoun she and is also referred to by the possessive pronoun her. The personification is realized not only by making the word feminine but also by using it in the possessive case by means of s (that is usually used with animate nouns) and by applying to it such words as pantings, kisses, to breathe that are characteristic of human being ? If springs curvaceous pantings when she breathes, Her first sweet kisses, have been dear to me (Shelley P. B. Alastor or the spirit of solitude)In the third sentence the word Nature (that is neutrally referred to as it) is accompanied by the possessive pronoun her that corresponds to the personal pronoun she. The personification in this case is realized not only by it but also by capitalizing the considered noun and by the accompanying words spous al garment, shroud that are employed metaphorically ? O Lady We receive but what we give, And in our life alone does Nature live Ours is her wedding-garment, ours her shroud (Coleridge S. T. Dejection An Ode) B. Free choice of gender In the imaginary world of literature when there are no such traditional associations, the choice of gender greatly depends on the personal qualities the author ascribes to the animal or to any object that becomes alive.The personification in the sentence below is realized not only by referring to the considered noun with the possessive pronoun her but also capitalizing it and by applying to it such phrases as to bow ones head, to mind ones charge (that are normally performed by human beings) ? The Cloud descended and the Lily bowd her modest head And went to mind her numerous charge among the verdant grass. (W. Blake The Book of Thel) The neuter noun snow is referred in the following example by means of the possessive pronoun her that corresponds to the personal pronoun she. The change of the neuter gender into feminine results in personification.The latter is also realized by means of capitalization of the noun and the metaphorically applied to it noun cloak The Snow covered up the grass with her great white cloak, and the Frost painted all the Trees silver. (Oscar Wilde The nightingale and the Rose) Personification in the example below is realized by referring to the noun duck as she and also by making her speak as people do (You will never be in the best society unless you can stand on your heads, she kept saying to them). The neuter noun duck is used as feminine. As a result an image of a nice mother who was teaching her children has been created ? The little ducks were swimming about in the pond, looking just like a lot of yellow canaries, and their mother duck, who was pure white with real red legs, was trying to teach them how to stand on their heads in the water. You will never be in the best society unless you can stand o n your heads, she kept saying to them and every now and then she showed them how it was done. (Oscar Wilde The Devoted Friend ) In the following two sentences the word Nightingale (which belongs to the neuter gender) becomes feminine by referring to it as she, her. Personification in this case is also realized by some metaphorically employed words that accompany the considered noun such as to wonder, to understand, to think. As a result the image of a kind creature that is not absorbed to the grief of others is created ? From her nest in the Holm-oak tree the Nightingale heard him, and she looked out through the leaves and wondered. But the Nightingale underst

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